MDPI Article Template

Richard Feynman



A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: 1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; 2) Methods: Describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied; 3) Results: Summarize the article’s main findings; and 4) Conclusion: Indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article, it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.

How to Use this Template

The template details the sections that can be used in a manuscript. Note that the order of article sections may differ from the requirements of the journal (e.g. for the positioning of the Materials and Methods section). Please check the instructions for authors page of the journal to verify the correct order. For any questions, please contact the editorial office of the journal or For LaTeX related questions please contact Janine Daum at


The introduction should briefly place the study in a broad context and highlight why it is important. It should define the purpose of the work and its significance. The current state of the research field should be reviewed carefully and key publications cited. Please highlight controversial and diverging hypotheses when necessary. Finally, briefly mention the main aim of the work and highlight the principal conclusions. As far as possible, please keep the introduction comprehensible to scientists outside your particular field of research. Citing a journal paper (Lastname 2008). And now citing a book reference (Lastname 2007).


This section may be divided by subheadings. It should provide a concise and precise description of the experimental results, their interpretation as well as the experimental conclusions that can be drawn.



Bulleted lists look like this:
  • First bullet
  • Second bullet
  • Third bullet
Numbered lists can be added as follows:
  1. First item
  2. Second item
  3. Third item
The text continues here.

Figures, Tables and Schemes

All figures and tables should be cited in the main text as Figure 1, Table 1, etc.
This is a figure, Schemes follow the same formatting. If there are multiple panels, they should be listed as: (a) Description of what is contained in the first panel. (b) Description of what is contained in the second panel. Figures should be placed in the main text near to the first time they are cited. A caption on a single line should be centered.