Vox Populi: Realistic Philosophy for the Political Economy of Future Humanity

Chapter 00: The Problem


A growing number of people, worldwide, agree that the present configuration of human economic and social activities is inconsistent with an expectation that it can be continued in its present form. This developing conviction displays a crisis of belief and trust in the inherited socio-economic paradigm which is contributing to the destabilising of societies and economic systems across the planet. This process is perceived to be an imminent and credible threat to the medium-term survival of the dominant forms of civilisation and also, perhaps, for the long-term survival of the human species in any meaningful state of individual well-being.


The present forms of economic and social activities employed by societies across the planet are dominated and defined by forms of economic enterprise and political organisation which though they are very varied in the details of their implementation they have in common several key socio-economic principals. This set of principals might be considered to be one of, possibly, several ’archaeo-institutions ’.

These ’archaeo-institutions’ are the foundational principles which comprise those sets of human behaviour that have developed in response to the requirements of learning to live in community with one another in mutually beneficial ways. During the course of time and in the face of ever changing demands, difficulties and opportunities each society has also uniquely developed further structures, laws and ’supra-institutions’.

It is these ’supra-institutions’ which characterise, together with their particular contextual endowments and scarcities, a particular socio-economic system. How each society has done this, and the historical path that this has lead them over, is what gives rise within each society to its own distinctive culture.

Although highly diverse and displaying often seemingly very different approaches to life, those societies which have grown beyond a certain quite small size [cf. Jared Diamond.. ’Germs, Warfare and Steel’] and which have ’settled’ habitations have very clearly organised their developing economic endeavours according to just one ’archaeo-institution’. These quite few principles are what we have called the ’archaeo-economic’ paradigm.

It would appear to the author that this ’archaeo-economic’ paradigm includes these nine foundational socio-economic principals which universally define our economic behaviours:

  • The exclusive ownership by individuals of identifiable discreet ’items’

  • The circumstances for determining the relative values of items and their exchange

  • The representation of value through quanta of equally valued symbolic ’unit’ values

  • A convention ascribing fixed numbers of units to specifically designed physical icons

  • A trusted arrangement exclusively controlling the production of value icons

  • The use of trusted value icons as intermediary ’vectors’ or ’stores of value’ in the asymmetric exchange of items of value between individuals

  • The valuation and payment of labour performed by one individual for another, of various quantity and quality, in appropriate quanta of value icons

  • The products of paid labour become owned by the owner(s) of the other inputs

  • Specialisation by individuals in their skills and object of their labour enables a number of individuals, after exchanges, to each have more of each good than would be the case if each produced all the same range of goods themselves.

This list is not meant to be exhaustive. It may be cogently argued there are some items which should be excluded or rephrased. I look forward to its collaborative refinement.

It is worth re-emphasising that all of the implementations of the many societal institutions and socio-economic systems that are based upon the ’archeo-economic’ paradigm have developed differently in detail. Yet, overall, they all still display a set of common characteristics which, as we shall see, are key to a common pattern of economic stratification in every society which has developed around them.

In each of these societies one can easily identify a quite small strata of people whose needs for their own well-being are provided for in relative abundance. For them there is little or no immediate pressure to be actively and directly occupied on an ’every day basis’ in the productive economic processes which provide for those needs. Not for those needs which are basic, nor for any of those ’needs’ which are essentially whimsical ’wants’.

In the other 90% to 99% of each society are found those strata of people for whom the basic daily requirements are provided either barely, incompletely, precariously or not at all. For them there is constant, unremitting pressure to be actively and directly occupied in almost any economic process potentially capable of contributing to the provision of their most basic needs. Even for those few amongst them whose basic physical needs are generally assured by stable economic activity, like those in the less secure of these strata, they have little or no expectation of ever achieving any enduring state of well-being at any stage during their lifetimes. Neither do their children.

When each society is looked at and their details are compared there is no large group of them that can be labelled as being comprised of ’typical’ societies. However, at the large scale, when looking at each society in its entirety and comparing those attributes we can then see the data which supports the broad claims and statements which have been made in the previous paragraphs.

These commonly seen outcomes are stereotypical of societies which have over thousands and over hundreds of years been creating, re-creating, changing and developing themselves. None of these societies have noticeably made any sustained move away from the position of having accepted as a ’given’ the principles comprising the ’archaeo-economic’ paradigm. None of t