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  • Chemistry, All Storylines

    EL

    EL1

    The Big Bang Theory

    • All matter was contained in a singularity

    • Expansion from Big Bang

      • Hydrogen and Helium nuclei form after 3 minutes

      • Electron slow enough to form atoms after 10,000 years

      • Universe primarily Hydrogen and Helium

      • Matter formed gas clouds as Universe cooled

      • Clouds compressed, forming plasma of ionised atoms and unbound electrons

      • Nuclear fusion begins, giving a star

      • Stellar wind drives away dust cloud, forming planets

    • Nuclear fusion common in centres of stars

    • Lighter nuclei fused together to form heavier nuclei, releasing large amounts of energy

    • Requires extreme temperature and pressure

    • Completely renewable

    Life Cycle of Stars

    Heavyweight Stars

    • Layers of elements form in star, heaviest at centre

    • Fusion of heavy elements due to increased pressure from star

    • When iron nuclei in core fuse, energy is absorbed

    • An iron core will cause a supernova

    Lightweight Stars

    • Longer life cycle than heavier stars

    • Will produce energy until all hydrogen is used

    • Expands into red giant after all energy is used

    • Red giant becomes unstable and outer gases drift away

    • Collapses down to White Dwarf, 1% of original stars size