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How To Write Mathmatical Equations, Expressions, and Symbols with LaTeX

Authorea supports LaTeX, a powerful typesetting program that renders beautiful math notation. There are two ways to present a mathematical expression— *inline* or as an *equation*.

Inline expressions occur in the middle of a sentence. To produce an inline expression, place the math expression between dollar signs (`$`

). For example, typing `$E=mc^2$`

yields \(E=mc^2\).

Equations are mathematical expressions that are given their own line and are centered on the page. These are usually used for important equations that deserve to be showcased on their own line or for large equations that cannot fit inline. To produce an inline expression, place the mathematical expression between the symbols `\[`

and `\]`

. Typing `\[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}\]`

yields \[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}.\]

To get full-sized inline mathematical expressions use `\displaystyle`

. Typing `I want this $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}`

`\frac{1}{n}$, not this $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}`

`\frac{1}{n}$.`

yields: I want this \(\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}\), not this \(\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}.\)

description |
command |
output |

addition | `+` |
\(+\) |

subtraction | `-` |
\(-\) |

plus or minus | `\pm` |
\(\pm\) |

multiplication (times) | `\times` |
\(\times\) |

multiplication (dot) | `\cdot` |
\(\cdot\) |

division symbol | `\div` |
\(\div\) |

division (slash) | `/` |
\(/\) |

infinity | `\infty` |
\(\infty\) |

dots | `1,2,3,\ldots` |
\(1,2,3,\ldots\) |

dots | `1+2+3+\cdots` |
\(1+2+3+\cdots\) |

fraction | `\frac{a}{b}` |
\(\frac{a}{b}\) |

square root | `\sqrt{x}` |
\(\sqrt{x}\) |

\(n\)th root | `\sqrt[n]{x}` |
\(\sqrt[n]{x}\) |

exponentiation | `a^b` |
\(a^{b}\) |

subscript | `a_b` |
\(a_{b}\) |

absolute value | `|x|` |
\(|x|\) |

natural log | `\ln(x)` |
\(\ln(x)\) |

logarithms | `\log_{a}b` |
\(\log_{a}b\) |

exponential function | `e^x=\exp(x)` |
\(e^{x}=\exp(x)\) |

degree | `\deg(f)` |
\(\deg(f)\) |

circle plus | `\oplus` |
\(\oplus\) |

circle times | `\otimes` |
\(\otimes\) |

equal | `=` |
\(=\) |

not equal | `\ne` |
\(\ne\) |

less than | `<` |
\(<\) |

less than or equal to | `\le` |
\(\le\) |

greater than or equal to | `\ge` |
\(\ge\) |

approximately equal to | `\approx` |
\(\approx\) |

description |
command |
output |

maps to | `\to` |
\(\to\) |

composition | `\circ` |
\(\circ\) |

command |
output |
command |
output |

`\alpha` |
\(\alpha\) | `\tau` |
\(\tau\) |

`\beta` |
\(\beta\) | `\theta` |
\(\theta\) |

`\chi` |
\(\chi\) | `\upsilon` |
\(\upsilon\) |

`\delta` |
\(\delta\) | `\xi` |
\(\xi\) |

`\epsilon` |
\(\epsilon\) | `\zeta` |
\(\zeta\) |

`\varepsilon` |
\(\varepsilon\) | `\Delta` |
\(\Delta\) |

`\eta` |
\(\eta\) | `\Gamma` |
\(\Gamma\) |

`\gamma` |
\(\gamma\) | `\Lambda` |
\(\Lambda\) |

`\iota` |
\(\iota\) | `\Omega` |
\(\Omega\) |

`\kappa` |
\(\kappa\) | `\Phi` |
\(\Phi\) |

`\lambda` |
\(\lambda\) | `\Pi` |
\(\Pi\) |

`\mu` |
\(\mu\) | `\Psi` |
\(\Psi\) |

`\nu` |
\(\nu\) | `\Sigma` |
\(\Sigma\) |

`\omega` |
\(\omega\) | `\Theta` |
\(\Theta\) |

`\phi` |
\(\phi\) | `\Upsilon` |
\(\Upsilon\) |

`\varphi` |
\(\varphi\) | `\Xi` |
\(\Xi\) |

`\pi` |
\(\pi\) | `\aleph` |
\(\aleph\) |

`\psi` |
\(\psi\) | `\beth` |
\(\beth\) |

`\rho` |
\(\rho\) | `\daleth` |
\(\daleth\) |

`\sigma` |
\(\sigma\) | `\gimel` |
\(\gimel\) |

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