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  • How To Write Mathmatical Equations, Expressions, and Symbols with LaTeX

    Authorea Help

    Writing math for the web!

    Authorea supports LaTeX, a powerful typesetting program that renders beautiful math notation. There are two ways to present a mathematical expression— inline or as an equation.

    Inline mathematical expressions

    Inline expressions occur in the middle of a sentence. To produce an inline expression, place the math expression between dollar signs ($ ). For example, typing $E=mc^2$ yields \(E=mc^2\).

    Equations

    Equations are mathematical expressions that are given their own line and are centered on the page. These are usually used for important equations that deserve to be showcased on their own line or for large equations that cannot fit inline. To produce an inline expression, place the mathematical expression between the symbols \[ and \] . Typing \[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}\] yields \[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}.\]

    Displaystyle

    To get full-sized inline mathematical expressions use \displaystyle . Typing I want this $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n}$, not this $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n}$. yields: I want this \(\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}\), not this \(\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}.\)

    Symbols (in math mode)

    The basics

    description command output
    addition + \(+\)
    subtraction - \(-\)
    plus or minus \pm \(\pm\)
    multiplication (times) \times \(\times\)
    multiplication (dot) \cdot \(\cdot\)
    division symbol \div \(\div\)
    division (slash) / \(/\)
    infinity \infty \(\infty\)
    dots 1,2,3,\ldots \(1,2,3,\ldots\)
    dots 1+2+3+\cdots \(1+2+3+\cdots\)
    fraction \frac{a}{b} \(\frac{a}{b}\)
    square root \sqrt{x} \(\sqrt{x}\)
    \(n\)th root \sqrt[n]{x} \(\sqrt[n]{x}\)
    exponentiation a^b \(a^{b}\)
    subscript a_b \(a_{b}\)
    absolute value |x| \(|x|\)
    natural log \ln(x) \(\ln(x)\)
    logarithms \log_{a}b \(\log_{a}b\)
    exponential function e^x=\exp(x) \(e^{x}=\exp(x)\)
    degree \deg(f) \(\deg(f)\)
    circle plus \oplus \(\oplus\)
    circle times \otimes \(\otimes\)
    equal = \(=\)
    not equal \ne \(\ne\)
    less than < \(<\)
    less than or equal to \le \(\le\)
    greater than or equal to \ge \(\ge\)
    approximately equal to \approx \(\approx\)

    Functions

    description command output
    maps to \to \(\to\)
    composition \circ \(\circ\)

    Greek and Hebrew letters

    command output command output
    \alpha \(\alpha\) \tau \(\tau\)
    \beta \(\beta\) \theta \(\theta\)
    \chi \(\chi\) \upsilon \(\upsilon\)
    \delta \(\delta\) \xi \(\xi\)
    \epsilon \(\epsilon\) \zeta \(\zeta\)
    \varepsilon \(\varepsilon\) \Delta \(\Delta\)
    \eta \(\eta\) \Gamma \(\Gamma\)
    \gamma \(\gamma\) \Lambda \(\Lambda\)
    \iota \(\iota\) \Omega \(\Omega\)
    \kappa \(\kappa\) \Phi \(\Phi\)
    \lambda \(\lambda\) \Pi \(\Pi\)
    \mu \(\mu\) \Psi \(\Psi\)
    \nu \(\nu\) \Sigma \(\Sigma\)
    \omega \(\omega\) \Theta \(\Theta\)
    \phi \(\phi\) \Upsilon \(\Upsilon\)
    \varphi \(\varphi\) \Xi \(\Xi\)
    \pi \(\pi\) \aleph \(\aleph\)
    \psi \(\psi\) \beth \(\beth\)
    \rho \(\rho\) \daleth \(\daleth\)
    \sigma \(\sigma\) \gimel \(\gimel\)