Objective: To investigate the ENT department’s (OPD, IPD) antibiotic prescribing practices at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India. Material and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, non-experimental (observational) study was performed in (OPD, IPD) department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) over a period of 6 months. Result: In this study, 100 ENT patients (51 male, 49 female) were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ear infections were the most common reason for visits (86 patients), followed by nose (7 patients) and throat infections (5 patients). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were β-lactam antibiotics, with penicillin’s (amoxicillin with clavulanic acid) and cephalosporin’s (cefixime) being the most commonly used. Combination therapy was used in 117 patients, with an average of 1.9 antibiotics per patient per course. A total of 40 antibiotics were prescribed, with oral being the most common route of administration. Only one adverse drug reaction was reported, with a suspected link to cefixime causing an increase in rashes in one patient. The study population had comorbid conditions of anxiety, epilepsy, and anaemia. Conclusions: To conclude, our study in the university teaching hospital (IIMSR) highlighted lesser utilization of antibiotics in ENT infections, as some of the ENT infections are not due to bacteria. The majority of ENT patients admitted to the hospital appear to have bacterial infections, and most of them reacted favourably to antibiotic treatment. Majority of the patients used the regimen in accordance with the current guidelines. Keywords: Antibiotic agents, drug utilization, adverse drug reaction, ENT infection.
Objective: To study the prescribing pattern and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of anti-diabetic drugs in a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months at the inpatient and outpatient departments of the hospital. A total of 100 patients with diabetes were included in our study. Demographic characteristics were recorded and 100 prescriptions were analyzed. ADRs were reported and analyzed. Results: Among the 100 patients, 58 were male and 42 were female. The majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. Biguanides (38%) and sulphonylureas (31%) were the most commonly prescribed anti-diabetic drugs. A total of 8 ADRs were reported, including hypoglycemia, gastric irritation, and abdominal discomfort. Metformin had the highest number of ADRs among the oral hypoglycemic drugs. Conclusion: The study showed that the prescribing pattern of anti-diabetic drugs in the hospital was in line with the essential medicine list. ADRs were reported, with hypoglycemia being the most common ADR observed. Continuous monitoring and reporting of ADRs is necessary for the safe and effective use of anti-diabetic drugs. Keywords: Prescribing pattern, adverse drug reactions, anti-diabetic drugs, diabetes, metformin
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but life-threatening skin reactions, often triggered by medications such as antiepileptic drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and certain antibiotics. Carbamazepine is one of the most common antiepileptic medicine that causes SJS. A 13-year-old male with a history of 2 years of epilepsy presented with a painful rash and extensive blistering with mucous membrane involvement, along with fever and Nilkolsky sign. Based on clinical presentation and previous medication history, the patient was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and carbamazepine was identified as the cause. Carbamazepine was discontinued, and the patient was given nutritional support, wound care, and intravenous fluids, along with steroid and antihistamine treatment. The patient’s symptoms improved, and he was discharged after 13 days. Physicians must be aware of the potential for life-threatening drug hypersensitivity reactions in patients taking certain medications, particularly antiepileptic drugs. A thorough history and careful monitoring are essential for the early recognition and treatment of SJS and TEN. We want to advise all physicians that for patients with a previous drug reaction to this class of medication, carbamazepine prescribing should be avoided. KEYWORDS: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), ADR.
Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS-Cov-2 coronavirus is a member of the coronavirus family. Fever, shortness of breath, and pneumonic infiltrates in both lungs were among the disease’s clinical signs. Along with severe respiratory infections, Covid-19 may also encounter thrombosis complications, and other complications like coronary syndrome, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, coronary syndrome, liver cell injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hyperglycaemia, ocular symptoms, neurological diseases, and dermatological problems. The way in which ophthalmic services were provided changed significantly during this time. Many people, particularly those who suffer from dry eye, are spending a lot of time at home due to continuous spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The difficulty for regular follow-up meetings impacting the continuance of glaucoma therapy, cataract surgery, and other eye diseases had been considerably much worse by establishment of strict social distancing and restrictions in travelling during COVID 19 pandemic. Methods: The PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and healthcare system evidences were searched from 2019 to 2022 for systemic review that were published in English language. Results: Both ocular disease and the overall health care system have been impacted by the result of Covid 19 pandemic. Like other professions, ophthalmology profession has experienced varied degrees of pandemic impact. Ocular problems could develop as a direct result of the SARS infection. The most frequent ocular symptom is viral conjunctivitis, dry-eye problems. During lockdown, the overall symptoms of dry eyes were worse than those who were under normal circumstances. Keywords: COVID-19, Dry-Eye Disease , Eye Diseases, SARS-CoV-2
Introduction: A global health issue known as antimicrobial resistance (AMR) transcends geopolitical boundaries. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) is the process of administering antimicrobial to treat contagions as a preventative measure, avoid them before, during, and after surgery. During surgery or after surgery there may be chances of acquiring infection. Infection at the surgical site is one such complication known as surgical site infection (SSI). It is one of the problems that reoccur the most frequently in clinical setting. Surgical site infection is described as an infection that develops with in thirty days of surgery and might be deep, affecting the organs reached during surgery, or superficial, involving only the skin. SSIs are occasionally the leading cause of death following surgical treatments. So, to reduce these types of complication we use surgical antibiotic prophylaxis. Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and healthcare system evidence were searched from 2005 to 2022 for systemic review that was published in the English language. Result: Data were extracted for all primary outcomes, 38 reviews were included, and review quality was evaluated using AMSTAR 2. The most often reported administration of antibiotic, timing, drug class, and primary result, respectively, were preoperative antibiotic administration, first generation cephalosporin usage, and surgical site infection (SSI). Results indicate that, in comparison to a placebo or no SAP, SAP may, on average, decrease SSIs. The finding showed that postoperative SAP did not differ significantly from intraoperative SAP in reducing SSI. Keywords: Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis (SAP), Surgical Site Infections (SSIs), Wound Classification