Agroforestry: An adaptation measure for sub-Saharan African food systems in response to increased weather extremes due to climate change
Several decades of scientific work on a better understanding of the earth’s climate system have led to increasing certainty that changes in the climate system are influenced by human activity. As the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC notes, there is 95% confidence that the increase in global surface temperature is caused by the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas concentrations (Stocker, 2013). As a result, more extreme weather occurrences have been predicted for many regions for the upcoming decades. Successfully coping with changes in weather patterns requires mitigation measures for future GHG emissions reductions along with adaptation measures, the latter adopted particularly in those regions that will be severely affected by future weather extremes.
In most of the developed Annex I countries, a well-functioning governance system provides financial resources and institutional stability for potentially large-scale investments in adaptation and mitigation measures within the national territories. In many developing countries, however, governance and institutions are poorly developed, resulting in a lack of financial investments to cope with climate change. Given these circumstances, affordable adaptation measures are required to be taken by citizens themselves on a local level to avoid adverse effects on their livelihoods.
An important field for investigating the effectiveness of adaptation measures against climate change are African sma