Both the global research community and federal governments are embracing a move toward more open sharing of the products of research. Historically, the primary product of research has been the peer-reviewed journal article for fundamental research and government technical report for applied research and engineering for government sponsored research. However, advances in information technology, new “open access” business models, and government policies are working to make publications and supporting materials much more accessible to the general public. These same drivers are obscuring the distinction between the data generated through the course of research and the associated publications. These developments have the potential to significantly enhance the value of both publications and the supporting digital research data, turning them into valuable assets that can be shared and reused by other researchers. The confluence of these shifts in the research landscape leads one to the conclusion that technical publications and their supporting research data must become bound together in a rational fashion. However, bringing these two research products together will require establishment of new policies and a supporting data infrastructure that have essentially no precedent in the materials community, and indeed are stressing many other fields of research. This document raises the key issues that must be addressed in developing these policies and infrastructure, and suggests a path forward in creating the solutions.