Previous reports indicate variable soybean quality parameters
exported/shipped from different geographic regions. This review compares
the quality of soybeans grown under diverse environmental conditions
from the US, Brazil and Argentina, the three main exporting countries.
While various studies have been conducted on whole soybean and soybean
meal composition by origin, similar analysis of soybean oil is lacking.
This review includes analysis of crude degummed soybean oil samples,
providing a holistic analysis of soybean and soybean co-product quality
by origin. Furthermore, a meta-analytical approach was conducted to
quantify the relation between US and Brazil soybean meal chemical
composition, nutritional value, minerals, and limited amino acid
composition. Soybeans from Brazil have higher levels of protein than
those from the US but the US soybeans have lower heat and total damage
than soybeans from Brazil. US and Brazil soybean meal have higher crude
protein than soybean meal from Argentina. At equal crude protein
content, US soybean meal had less fiber, more sucrose and lysine and
better protein quality than South American soybean meals. Methionine,
threonine, and cysteine levels were similar in soybean protein from US
and Argentina and higher than that in soybean protein from Brazil.
Degummed soybean oil from Brazil had higher free fatty acids, neutral
oil loss, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium than degummed oil from the
US or Argentina. Our analysis suggests that environmental conditions
under which soybeans are grown and stored as well as their handling can
have a large impact on chemical composition and nutrient quality of