Girma Tefera

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Mammals play a role in environmental engineering. Outside of protected areas, Ethiopia’s mammalian supply is rapidly dwindling, and there is a scarcity of data on mammalian diversity and ecology. As a result, from June 2020 to February 2021, a study was conducted in Arjo Diga Forest to determine the species composition, distribution, relative abundance, and threats of large and medium wild mammals. Using transect lines, survey techniques were used to record mammals from four habitat types, Eighty people participated in a questionnaire survey to identify the current threatening factors. A total of 763 individuals were compiled belonging to 19 mammalian species, 6 orders, and 12 families. Papio Anubis (30.3 %) was the most abundant in the research region, followed by Chlorocebus mitts (22%), while Panthera pardus and Panthera Leo were the least, contributing 0.79 % and 0.39 % of the total observation, respectively. There is, however, a significantly varied among habitats (χ2 = 246.4; DF = 18; P < 0.05). Among observed mammals, (n = 433, 56.75%) individuals were recorded in dry season, while (n = 330, 43.25%) individuals were recorded in wet season and abundance of mammals species not significantly between seasons (χ2 = 12.12; DF = 18; P >0.05). The diversity of species varies depending on the stratified habitat types. The Shannon–Wiener Index values, on the other hand, do not differ much between habitat types. The research area’s species diversity was H′ = 2.296, with the highest Simpson Index of diversity (1-D) being (0.8406). Agricultural land expansion, illegal logging, overgrazing, quarry operations, and illegal hunting are all threats to the species that inhabit the study area. A quick national park is required to rescue these species