Viral systems such as wild-type viruses, viral vectors, and virus-like particles are essential components of modern biotechnology and medicine. Despite their importance, the commercial-scale production of viral systems remains highly inefficient for multiple reasons. Computational strategies are a promising avenue for improving process development, optimization, and control, but require a mathematical description of the system. This article reviews mechanistic modeling strategies for the production of viral particles, both at the cellular and bioreactor scales. In many cases, techniques and models from adjacent fields such as epidemiology and wild-type viral infection kinetics can be adapted to construct a suitable process model. These process models can then be employed for various purposes such as in-silico testing of novel process operating strategies and/or advanced process control.