Invasive species are among the most important, growing threats to food security and agricultural systems. The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is one of the most damaging representatives of a group of rapidly expanding species in the family Tephritidae due to their wide host range and high invasiveness. Here, we used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to investigate population genomic structure and phylogeographic history of medflies collected from six sampling sites, including Africa (South Africa), the Mediterranean (Spain, Greece), Latin America (Guatemala, Brazil) and Australia. A total of 1,907 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed two genetic clusters separating native and introduced ranges, consistent with previous findings. In the introduced range, all individuals were assigned to one genetic cluster except for those in Brazil, which showed introgression of a genetic cluster that also appeared exclusively in South Africa and could not be previously identified using microsatellite markers. Moreover, the microbiome variations in medfly populations from selected sampling sites was assessed by amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (V4 region). No strong patterns of microbiome variation were detected across geographic regions or host plants, except for the differentiation of the Brazilian specimens which showed increased diversity and unique composition of its microbiome compared to other sampling sites. The unique SNP patterns in the Brazilian specimens could point to a direct migration route from Africa with subsequent adaptation of the microbiota to the specific conditions present in Brazil. These findings significantly improve our understanding of the evolutionary history of global medfly invasions and adaptation to newly colonised environments.
Little is known about dispersal in deep-sea sponges, yet understanding patterns of gene flow and connectivity is essential for their effective management. Given rising pressure from harmful anthropogenic activities, schemes that manage resource extraction whilst conserving species diversity are increasingly necessary. Here, we used ddRADseq derived SNPs to investigate the genetic diversity and connectivity for the deep-sea sponge Phakellia ventilabrum across the northeast Atlantic Ocean (from the Cantabrian Sea to Norway). The analysis of 166 individuals collected from 57 sampling stations were grouped into 17 different areas, including two MPAs, one SAC and other areas with different levels of protection. The 4,017 neutral SNPs we uncovered indicated high connectivity and panmixis amongst the majority of areas, spanning a ca. 2,500-kilometre range and depths of 99–900 m. This was likely due to the presence of strong ocean currents aiding larval transport, as supported by our migration analysis and also by 3D particle tracking modelling using information on the reproductive cycle of P. ventilabrum. We also observed significant genetic similarity between samples from the Cantabrian Sea and Roscoff (France) as compared to the remainder of the collection areas, likely arising from physical drivers such as prevailing current circulation patterns and topographic features, acting as barriers for gene flow. Despite this, our results suggest that all protected areas studied are well connected with each other. The relatively low genetic diversity observed in all areas, though, highlights the potential fragility of this species to changing climates, which might compromise resilience to future threats.