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Possible toxicity of chronic carbon dioxide exposure associated with mask use, particularly in pregnant women, children and adolescents -a scoping review
  • +2
  • Kai Kisielinski,
  • Susanne Wagner,
  • Oliver Hirsch,
  • Bernd Klosterhalfen,
  • Andreas Prescher
Kai Kisielinski
Independent Researcher, Surgeon, Private Practice, Düsseldorf, Germany

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile
Susanne Wagner
Non Clinical Expert, Veterinarian, Wagner MSL Management, Mahlow, Germany
Oliver Hirsch
Department of Psychology, FOM University of Applied Sciences, Siegen, Germany
Bernd Klosterhalfen
Institute of Pathology, Dueren Hospital, Düren Germany
Andreas Prescher
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy (MOCA), Aachen, Germany


Literature was systematically reviewed regarding CO2 exposure and facemask use. Observational and experimental data are helpful for a risk-benefit assessment for masks as a popular non-pharmaceutical intervention against SARS-CoV2 in the populace. Masks impede breathing by increasing the resistance and dead space volume leading to a re-breathing of CO2 with every breath taken. Fresh air has around 0.04% CO2, while wearing masks more than 5 minutes bears a possible chronic exposure to carbon dioxide of 1.41% to 3.2% of the inhaled air. Although the buildup is usually within the short-term exposure limits, long-term consequences must be considered due to experimental data. US Navy toxicity experts set the exposure limits for submarines carrying female crews to 0.8% CO2 based on animal studies indicating an increased risk for stillbirths. Additionally, in mammals chronically exposed to 0.3% CO2 experimental data demonstrates teratogenicity with irreversible damage of neurons and reduced spatial learning caused by brainstem neuron apoptosis and a reduced blood level of the insulin-like growth factor 1. With significant impact on three readout parameters (morphological, functional, marker) this chronic 0.3% CO2 exposure has to be defined as being toxic. Additional data exists on the exposure of chronic 0.3% CO2 in adolescent mammals causing neuron destruction, which includes less activity, increased anxiety and impaired learning and memory. There is a possible negative impact risk by imposing extended mask mandates especially for vulnerable subgroups. Circumstantial evidence exists that extended mask use may be related to current observations of stillbirths and to reduced verbal motor and overall cognitive performance in children born during the pandemic. Extended masking in pregnant women, children and adolescents has not been thoroughly tested and studied. As a result of the animal experimental data available, a risk-benefit analysis is urgent and a need exists to rethink mask mandates, which provide appropriate warnings.
Apr 2023Published in Heliyon volume 9 issue 4 on pages e14117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e14117