© 2016, Kevin J. Black. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
I've learned a few things from my experience with NIH grants, and in talking recently with a former research trainee, I realized those lessons might be helpful to others.
What experience? I've successfully competed for NIH grants including R01s, R21s, a K08, a K24, an R13, and an ARRA supplement. I've also contributed as investigator or key personnel to other PIs' R01s. I've served on several NIH review panels and was a standing member of the Clinical Neuroscience and Neurodegeneration (CNN) study section for 4 years. A recent NIH biosketch is available here with all the details.
Disclaimer: this is free advice ... and guaranteed to be worth every penny. ☺ As they say, YMMV.
... so although you want to provide some background for people who are statisticians not psychologists, or who are rat PhDs not human imaging PhDs, don't spend 3 pages reviewing a topic well known in the field, like working memory for a cognitive review section.
... so you probably won't get away with