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Toxoplasmosis in a free ranging hairy dwarf porcupine ( Sphiggurus spinosus) with a novel genotype
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  • Alessandra Loureiro Morales dos Santos,
  • Pedro Enrique Navas-Suarez,
  • Juliana Mariotti Guerra,
  • Ticiana Brasil Ervedosa,
  • Luana Rivas,
  • Adriana Joppert,
  • Eduardo Ferreira Machado,
  • Rodrigo Réssio,
  • Isis Paixão de Jesus,
  • Julia de Carvalho,
  • Patricia Sayuri Silvestre Matsumoto,
  • Ketlyn Bolsachini Figueiredo,
  • José Luiz Catão-Dias,
  • Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes
Alessandra Loureiro Morales dos Santos
Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia
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Pedro Enrique Navas-Suarez
Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia
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Juliana Mariotti Guerra
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Ticiana Brasil Ervedosa
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Luana Rivas
Wildlife Division - Centro de Manejo e Conservação de Animais Silvestres - CEMACAS São Paulo São Paulo State Brazil
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Adriana Joppert
Wildlife Division - Centro de Manejo e Conservação de Animais Silvestres - CEMACAS São Paulo São Paulo State Brazil
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Eduardo Ferreira Machado
Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia
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Rodrigo Réssio
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Isis Paixão de Jesus
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Julia de Carvalho
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Patricia Sayuri Silvestre Matsumoto
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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Ketlyn Bolsachini Figueiredo
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
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José Luiz Catão-Dias
Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia
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Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes
Universidade de Sao Paulo Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia
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Abstract

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous coccidia Toxoplasma gondii. Rodents play an important role in maintaining its life cycle, as they are one of the main diet sources for felids (wild and domestic), the unique definitive hosts. However, reports of toxoplasmosis in porcupines (Rodentia Order) are uncommon, with gaps concerning its pathophysiology. South America is the continent with the greatest genetic diversity of rodents and T. gondii. A free-ranging hairy dwarf porcupine was admitted to a wildlife rescue center with a history of trauma. During rehabilitation, the animal presented neurological symptoms (sporadic episodes of hind limbs paresis) and died five months later. The main findings during necropsy were brain congestion and severe incisor overgrowth associated with maxillary perforation. The histopathological exam showed moderate encephalitis, with variable-sized round cysts, positive for PAS stain and immunohistochemistry for T. gondii. Additionally, two cysts were observed in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Molecular techniques were performed to characterize the parasite load by qPCR (Cq=30) and the genotype by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers, which revealed a new genotype. This case adds to the body of knowledge in comparative pathology of Neotropical Rodentia and reports a new genotype circulating in South America.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

23 Oct 2021Submitted to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
25 Oct 2021Submission Checks Completed
25 Oct 2021Assigned to Editor
03 Nov 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
24 Nov 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
24 Nov 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
30 Nov 20211st Revision Received
30 Nov 2021Assigned to Editor
30 Nov 2021Submission Checks Completed
01 Dec 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
21 Dec 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
27 Dec 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
28 Dec 20212nd Revision Received
28 Dec 2021Assigned to Editor
28 Dec 2021Submission Checks Completed
05 Jan 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
05 Jan 2022Editorial Decision: Accept