loading page

A comprehensive study of indole catalytic hydrodenitrogenation under hydrothermal conditions
  • +1
  • Xu Liu,
  • Yang Guo,
  • Haoran He,
  • Lingzhao Kong
Lingzhao Kong
Author Profile


This article focuses on the catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) mechanism of indole under hydrothermal conditions. Both gaseous hydrogen and liquid hydrogen donor formic acid (FA) can improve indole conversion and total yield of denitrogenated products. Ru/C showed the highest activity among the catalysts for indole conversion in all temperature conditions with the existence of H2 and 91.17 % indole was converted at 400 °C and 60 min. Based on reaction kinetic experiments, a kinetic model was developed to describe the hydrothermal HDN reaction of indole over the home-made Ni80Ru20/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, which clearly captured all data trends and fitted the temporal variation of all major liquid products. High activation energy for formation of O-containing substance o-cresol from both mathematical fitting and density functional theory (DFT) calculation indicated a rare occurrence of reaction between pyrrole ring-opening product methyl aniline and H2O, consistent with experimental observation that only a trace of o-cresol was detected.
30 Jun 2021Submitted to AIChE Journal
05 Jul 2021Submission Checks Completed
05 Jul 2021Assigned to Editor
13 Jul 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
23 Aug 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Major
02 Oct 20211st Revision Received
07 Oct 2021Submission Checks Completed
07 Oct 2021Assigned to Editor
18 Oct 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
10 Nov 2021Editorial Decision: Accept
Mar 2022Published in AIChE Journal volume 68 issue 3. 10.1002/aic.17531