# Frontiers template

Abstract

Leave the Abstract empty if your article falls under any of the following categories: Editorial Book Review, Commentary, Field Grand Challenge, Opinion or specialty Grand Challenge. As a primary goal, the abstract should render the general significance and conceptual advance of the work clearly accessible to a broad readership. References should not be cited in the abstract. Refer to http://www.frontiersin.org/ or Table \ref{Tab:01} for abstract requirement and length according to article type.

Keywords: Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. All article types: you may provide up to 8 keywords; at least 5 are mandatory.

# Introduction

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text.Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text.

# Material & Methods

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. (LastName1 2013) might want to know about text text text text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. (OtherAuthor et al., 2012) might want to know about text text text text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. (Author4 2013) might want to know about text text text text

Maximum size of the Manuscript\label{Tab:01}
Abstract max. legth (incl. spaces) Figures or tables Manuscript max. length Final PDF length
Clinical Case Study
Clinical Trial
Hypothesis and Theory
Methods 2000 characters 15 12000 words 12 pages
Original Research
Review
Technology Report
Focused Review 2000 characters 5 5000 words 5 pages
CPC 1250 characters 6 2500 words 4 pages
Perspective 1250 characters 2 3000 words 3 pages
Mini Review
Classification 1250 characters 10 2000 words 12 pages
Editorial none none 1000 words 1 page
Book review
Frontiers Commentary none 1 1000 words 1 page
General Commentary
Field Grand Challenge
Opinion none 1 2000 words 2 pages
Specialty Grand Challenge

Please note that very large tables (covering several pages) cannot be included in the final PDF for reasons of space. These tables will be published as supplementary material on the online article abstract page at the time of acceptance. The author will notified during the typesetting of the final article if this is the case. A link in the final PDF will direct to the online material.

## Original Research Articles, Clinical Trial Articles, and Technology Reports

For Original Research Articles, Clinical Trial Articles, and Technology Reports the section headings should be those appropriate for your field and the research itself. It is recommended to organize your manuscript in the following sections or their equivalents for your field:

• Introduction: Succinct, with no subheadings.

• Materials and Methods: This section may be divided by subheadings. This section should contain sufficient detail so that when read in conjunction with cited references, all procedures can be repeated.

• Results: This section may be divided by subheadings. Footnotes should not be used and have to be transferred into the main text.

• Discussion: This section may be divided by subheadings. Discussions should cover the key findings of the study: discuss any prior art related to the subject so to place the novelty of the discovery in the appropriate context; discuss the potential short-comings and limitations on their interpretations; discuss their integration into the current understanding of the problem and how this advances the current views; speculate on the future direction of the research and freely postulate theories that could be tested in the future.

Please note that the Material and Methods section can be placed in any of the following ways: before Results, before Discussion or after Discussion.

## Clinical Case Studies

For Clinical Case Studies the following sections are mandatory:

• Introduction: Include symptoms at presentation, physical exams and lab results.

• Background: This section may be divided by subheadings. Include history and review of similar cases.

• Results: This section may be divided by subheadings. Include diagnosis and treatment.

• Concluding Remarks

# Results

Frontiers requires figures to be submitted individually, in the same order as they are referred to in the manuscript. Figures will then be automatically embedded at the bottom of the submitted manuscript. Kindly ensure that each table and figure is mentioned in the text and in numerical order. Permission must be obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the web). Please note that it is compulsory to follow figure instructions. Figures which are not according to the guidelines will cause substantial delay during the production process.

 Image Type Description Format Color Mode Resolution Line Art An image composed of lines and text, TIFF, JPEG RGB, Bitmap 900 - 1200 dpi which does not contain tonal or shaded areas. Halftone A continuous tone photograph, which contains no text. TIFF, EPS, JPEG RGB, Grayscale 300 dpi Combination Image contains halftone + text or line art elements. TIFF, JPEG RGB,Grayscale 600 - 900 dpi

$\sum x+ y =Z\label{eq:01}$

Table \ref{Tab:02} shows the resolution requirements for the figures. The figures must be legible:

1. The smallest visible text is no less than 8 points in height, when viewed at actual size.

2. Solid lines are not broken up.

3. Image areas are not pixelated or stair stepped.

4. Text is legible and of high quality.

5. Any lines in the graphic are no smaller than 2 points width.

6. The actual size of the figure must be of at least 8.5 cm.

# Discussion

Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text. Additional Requirements:

## Corrections

Minor corrections to published articles can be communicated to the Frontiers Production Office at production.office@frontiersin.org. If you need to communicate important changes to an article please submit a General Commentary. Submit the article with the title “Erratum: Original Title of Article”.

## Commentaries on Articles

At the beginning of your manuscript provide the citation of the article commented on.

## Focused Reviews

For Tier 2 invited Focused Reviews the sections Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, and Discussion are recommended. In addition the authors must submit a short biography of the corresponding author(s). This short biography has a maximum of 600 characters, including spaces.

A picture (5 x 5 cm, in *.tif or *.jpg, min 300 dpi) must be submitted along with the biography in the manuscript and separately during figure upload. Focused Reviews highlight and explain key concepts of your work. Please highlight a minimum of four and a maximum of ten key concepts in bold in your manuscript and provide the definitions/explanations at the end of your manuscript under “Key Concepts”. Each definition has a maximum of 400 characters, including spaces.

## Human Search and Animal Research

All experiments on live vertebrates or higher invertebrates must be performed in accordance with relevant institutional and national guidelines and regulations. In the manuscript, authors must identify the committee approving the experiments and must confirm that all experiments conform to the relevant regulatory standards. For manuscripts reporting experiments on human subjects, authors must identify the committee approving the experiments and must also include a statement confirming that informed consent was obtained from all subjects. In Original Research Articles and Clinical Trial Articles these statements should appear in the Materials and Methods section.

## Clinical Trial Registration

Clinical trials should be registered in a public trials registry in order to become the object of a publication at Frontiers. Trials must be registered at or before the start of patient enrollment. A clinical trial is defined as“any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.”(www.who.int/ictrp/en). A list of acceptable registries can be found at www.who.int/ictrp/en and www.icmje.org.

## Inclusion of Proteomics Data

Authors should provide relevant information relating to how the peptide/protein matches were undertaken, including methods used to process and analyze data, false discovery rates (FDR) for large-scale studies and threshold or cut-off rates for peptide and protein matches. Further information could include software used, mass spectrometer type, sequence database and version, number of sequences in database, processing methods, mass tolerances used for matching, variable/fixed modifications, allowable missed cleavages, etc.

Authors should provide as supplementary material information used to identify proteins and/or peptides. This should include information such as accession numbers, observed mass (m/z), charge, delta mass, matched mass, peptide/protein scores, peptide modification, miscleavages, peptide sequence, match rank, matched species (for cross species matching), number of peptide matches, ambiguous protein/peptide matches should be indicated, etc. For quantitative proteomics analyses authors should provide information to justify the statistical significance including biological replicates, statistical methods, estimates of uncertainty and the methods used for calculating error.

For peptide matches with biologically relevant post-translational modifications (PTM) and for any protein match that has occurred using a single mass spectrum, authors should include this information as raw data, annotated spectra or submit data to an online repository (recommended option). Authors are encouraged to submit raw or matched data and 2-DE images to public proteomics repositories. Submission codes and/or links to data should be provided within the manuscript.

## Data Sharing

Frontiers supports the policy of data sharing, and authors are advised to make freely available any materials and information described in their article, and any data relevant to the article (while not compromising confidentiality in the context of human-subject research) that may be reasonably requested by others for the purpose of academic and non-commercial research. In regards to deposition of data and data sharing through databases, Frontiers urges authors to comply with the current best practices within their discipline.

# Disclosure/Conflict-of-Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

# Acknowledgement

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#### Funding

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# Supplemental Data

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\label{fig:01} Enter the caption for your figure here. Repeat as necessary for each of your figures.

### References

1. Author1 LastName1, Author2 LastName2, Author3 LastName2. Article Title. Frontiers in Neuroscience 30, 10127–10134 (2013). Link

2. Name OtherAuthor, Name S. Coauthor. Article Title. Frontiers in Genetics 30, 16417–16418 (2012). Link

3. Name4 Author4, Name5 Author5. Title of the Article. Frontiers in Neurorobotics 7 (2013). Link