Histone is a scaffold protein that constitutes nucleosomes with DNA in the cell nucleus. When forming histone, hetero octamer is assisted by histone chaperone proteins. As a histone chaperone protein, the crystal structure of yeast nucleosome assembly protein (yNap1) has been determined. For yNap1, a nuclear export signal/sequence (NES) has been identified as a part of the long -helix. Experimental evidence via mutagenesis on budding yeast suggests the NES is necessary for transport out from the cell nucleus. However, the NES is masked by a region defined as an accessory domain (AD). In addition, the role of the AD in nuclear transport has not been elucidated yet. To address the role of the AD, we focused on phosphorylation in the AD because proteome experiments have identified multiple phosphorylation sites of yNap1. To computationally treat phosphorylation, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a set of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated yNap1 (Nap1-nonP and Nap1-P). As an analysis, we addressed how the NES is exposed to the protein surface by measuring its solvent-access surface area (SASA). As a result, there was a difference in the SASA distributions between both systems. Quantitatively, the median of the SASA distribution of Nap1-P was greater than that of Nap1-nonP, meaning that phosphorylation in the AD exposed to the NES, resulting in increasing its accessibility. In conclusion, yNap1 might modulate the accessibility of the NES by dislocating the AD through phosphorylation.
We located ‘hidden’ S-character chirality in formally achiral glycine using a vector-based interpretation of the total electronic charge density distribution. We induced the formation of stereoisomers in glycine by the application of an electric field. Control of chirality was indicated from the proportionate response to a non-structurally distorting electric field. The bond-flexing was determined to be a measure of bond strain, which could be a factor of three lower or higher, depending on the direction of the electric field, than in the absence of the electric field. The bond-anharmonicity was found to be approximately independent of the electric field. We also compared the formally achiral glycine with the chiral molecules alanine and lactic acid, quantifying the preferences for the S and R stereoisomers. The proportional response of the chiral discrimination to the magnitude and direction of the applied electric field indicated use of the chirality discrimination as a molecular similarity measure.