Academic pyramid
Hed 20 0648 figure 3

Maria Vargas MD

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IntroductionAs the novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) globally spreads, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is straining healthcare workers worldwide [1]. In hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, endotracheal intubation is one of the most common and indispensable life-saving interventions. In a recent report from the City of New York, 12% of COVID-19 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation [2]. Since difficult weaning and prolonged mechanical ventilation represent the two most common indications for tracheostomy in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), it may play a central role in COVID-19 management [3]. During the 2019-nCov pandemic the aerosol generating procedures, such as tracheostomy, expose physicians at high risk to contract the \soutCOVID-19 infection [4]. Accordingly, special consideration may be done to protect otolaryngologists, general surgeons and critical care physicians from the risk of infection while performing a tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients [5]. Percutaneous tracheostomy (PT) is routinely performed at the bedside in intensive care unit (ICU); unfortunately, a modified protocol to perform PT in COVID-19 patients included several critical steps associated with increased risk of aerosol generation, such as changing the catheter mount, repositioning the endotracheal tube cuff to the level of the vocal cords and removal of large dilator [6]. So far, there has been no prior description in the literature of how to minimize the aerosol generation during PT. We reported a modified percutaneous tracheostomy technique aiming to minimize the risk of aerosol generation and to increase the staff safety in COVID-19 patients.

Authorea Help

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WHAT IS LATEX? LaTeX is a programming language that can be used for writing and typesetting documents. It is especially useful to write mathematical notation such as equations and formulae. HOW TO USE LATEX TO WRITE MATHEMATICAL NOTATION There are three ways to enter “math mode” and present a mathematical expression in LaTeX: 1. _inline_ (in the middle of a text line) 2. as an _equation_, on a separate dedicated line 3. as a full-sized inline expression (_displaystyle_) _inline_ Inline expressions occur in the middle of a sentence. To produce an inline expression, place the math expression between dollar signs ($). For example, typing $E=mc^2$ yields E = mc². _equation_ Equations are mathematical expressions that are given their own line and are centered on the page. These are usually used for important equations that deserve to be showcased on their own line or for large equations that cannot fit inline. To produce an inline expression, place the mathematical expression between the symbols \[! and \verb!\]. Typing \[x=}{2a}\] yields \[x=}{2a}\] _displaystyle_ To get full-sized inline mathematical expressions use \displaystyle. Typing I want this $\displaystyle ^{\infty} {n}$, not this $^{\infty} {n}$. yields: I want this $\displaystyle ^{\infty}{n}$, not this $^{\infty}{n}.$ SYMBOLS (IN _MATH_ MODE) The basics As discussed above math mode in LaTeX happens inside the dollar signs ($...$), inside the square brackets \[...\] and inside equation and displaystyle environments. Here’s a cheatsheet showing what is possible in a math environment: -------------------------- ----------------- --------------- _description_ _command_ _output_ addition + + subtraction - − plus or minus \pm ± multiplication (times) \times × multiplication (dot) \cdot ⋅ division symbol \div ÷ division (slash) / / simple text text infinity \infty ∞ dots 1,2,3,\ldots 1, 2, 3, … dots 1+2+3+\cdots 1 + 2 + 3 + ⋯ fraction {b} ${b}$ square root $$ nth root \sqrt[n]{x} $\sqrt[n]{x}$ exponentiation a^b ab subscript a_b ab absolute value |x| |x| natural log \ln(x) ln(x) logarithms b logab exponential function e^x=\exp(x) ex = exp(x) deg \deg(f) deg(f) degree \degree $\degree$ arcmin ^\prime ′ arcsec ^{\prime\prime} ′′ circle plus \oplus ⊕ circle times \otimes ⊗ equal = = not equal \ne ≠ less than < < less than or equal to \le ≤ greater than or equal to \ge ≥ approximately equal to \approx ≈ -------------------------- ----------------- ---------------
Preprints

Josh Nicholson

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Authorea was founded with the mission of improving how researchers write and publish their findings. We created a platform that allows researchers to write across formats, to automatically add and format citations from over 86,594,377 scholarly documents, to directly submit to a growing list of leading journals, and to collaborate easily across continents and disciplines with superior version control.  We built Authorea to be the most powerful editor for researchers because we believe that research is fundamentally important in all aspects of life.  Today, we're happy to announce our latest addition to the Authorea toolset: the ability for researchers assign a digital object identifier (DOI) to their Authorea documents.  With this release, you can now write, cite, host data, and preprint on Authorea.What is a preprint?Preprints are publication-ready research papers that are made public before peer review and formal publication. Preprints are designed to address the speed of scientific communication, the accessibility of knowledge and the existing tendency to report mostly positive results.  Preprints have a long history in research dissemination and are part of the story about how the web was created. They have long been used in physics and math with nearly 10,000 preprints posted per month at ar\(\chi\)iv and are starting to gain rapid adoption in other disciplines like the life sciences.  In fact, the growth of preprints in other disciplines was named one of Science's events that shaped 2016.