Pancreatoblastoma (PBL) is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting typically young children. Signs related to advanced upper-abdominal tumor accompanied by elevated serum α-fetoprotein levels in a young child suggest PBL, however histopathological examination is required for diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is a complete surgical resection. Inoperable and/or metastatic PBL may become amenable to complete, delayed surgery after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. This manuscript presents the internationally consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children with PBL, established by the European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors (EXPeRT) within the EU-funded PARTNER (Paediatric Rare Tumors Network – European Registry) project.
As part of the European Union-funded project designated PARTN-ER, the European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors (EXPeRT) is continuously developing consensus recommendations in order to harmonize standard care for very rare solid tumors of children and adolescents. This paper presents the internationally recognized recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of sex cord stromal tumors (SCST). The clinical approach to sex cord stromal tumors of the testis (TSCST) and ovary (OSCST) depends on histological differentiation and tumor stage. Virtually all TSCSTs present as localized non-metastatic tumors, with excellent prognosis after complete resection. In contrast, the prognosis of OSCSTs may be adversely affected by tumor spillage during surgery or presence of metastases. In these cases, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is recommended. Of note, some SCSTs may develop in the context of tumor predisposition syndromes e.g. DICER-1, so that specific follow-up is indicated. SCSTs should be diagnosed and treated according to standardized recommendations that include reference pathology, genetic testing for tumor predisposition syndromes in selected cases, and stratified adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with unfavorable risk profile. To ensure high quality of diagnosis and therapy, patients should be enrolled into prospective registries.