# INTRODUCTION

This template provides authors with most of the formatting specifications needed for preparing electronic versions of their papers. All standard paper components have been specified for three reasons: (1) ease of use when formatting individual papers, (2) automatic compliance to electronic requirements that facilitate the concurrent or later production of electronic products, and (3) conformity of style throughout a conference proceedings. Margins, column widths, line spacing, and type styles are built-in; examples of the type styles are provided throughout this document and are identified in italic type, within parentheses, following the example. Some components, such as multi-leveled equations, graphics, and tables are not prescribed, although the various table text styles are provided. The formatter will need to create these components, incorporating the applicable criteria that follow.

# PROCEDURE FOR PAPER SUBMISSION

## Selecting a Template (Heading 2)

First, confirm that you have the correct template for your paper size. This template has been tailored for output on the US-letter paper size. It may be used for A4 paper size if the paper size setting is suitably modified.

## Maintaining the Integrity of the Specifications

The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text fonts are prescribed; please do not alter them. You may note peculiarities. For example, the head margin in this template measures proportionately more than is customary. This measurement and others are deliberate, using specifications that anticipate your paper as one part of the entire proceedings, and not as an independent document. Please do not revise any of the current designations

# MATH

Before you begin to format your paper, first write and save the content as a separate text file. Keep your text and graphic files separate until after the text has been formatted and styled. Do not use hard tabs, and limit use of hard returns to only one return at the end of a paragraph. Do not add any kind of pagination anywhere in the paper. Do not number text heads-the template will do that for you.

Finally, complete content and organizational editing before formatting. Please take note of the following items when proofreading spelling and grammar:

## Abbreviations and Acronyms

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable.

## Units

Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units are encouraged.) English units may be used as secondary units (in parentheses). An exception would be the use of English units as identifiers in trade, such as ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***3.5-inch disk drive***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

Avoid combining SI and CGS units, such as current in amperes and magnetic field in oersteds. This often leads to confusion because equations do not balance dimensionally. If you must use mixed units, clearly state the units for each quantity that you use in an equation.

Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***Wb/m2***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** or ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***webers per square meter***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***webers/m2***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. Spell out units when they appear in text: ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. . . a few henries***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. . . a few H***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

Use a zero before decimal points: ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***0.25***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.25***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. Use ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***cm3***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***cc***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. (bullet list)

## Equations

The equations are an exception to the prescribed specifications of this template. You will need to determine whether or not your equation should be typed using either the Times New Roman or the Symbol font (please no other font). To create multileveled equations, it may be necessary to treat the equation as a graphic and insert it into the text after your paper is styled. Number equations consecutively. Equation numbers, within parentheses, are to position flush right, as in (1), using a right tab stop. To make your equations more compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), the exp function, or appropriate exponents. Italicize Roman symbols for quantities and variables, but not Greek symbols. Use a long dash rather than a hyphen for a minus sign. Punctuate equations with commas or periods when they are part of a sentence, as in



Note that the equation is centered using a center tab stop. Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been defined before or immediately following the equation. Use ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***(1)***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***Eq. (1)***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** or ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***equation (1)***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, except at the beginning of a sentence: ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***Equation (1) is . . .***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***

## Some Common Mistakes

The word ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***data***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** is plural, not singular.

The subscript for the permeability of vacuum ?0, and other common scientific constants, is zero with subscript formatting, not a lowercase letter ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***o***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

In American English, commas, semi-/colons, periods, question and exclamation marks are located within quotation marks only when a complete thought or name is cited, such as a title or full quotation. When quotation marks are used, instead of a bold or italic typeface, to highlight a word or phrase, punctuation should appear outside of the quotation marks. A parenthetical phrase or statement at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.)

A graph within a graph is an ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***inset***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, not an ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***insert***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***. The word alternatively is preferred to the word ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***alternately***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** (unless you really mean something that alternates).

Do not use the word ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***essentially***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** to mean ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***approximately***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** or ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***effectively***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

In your paper title, if the words ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***that uses***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** can accurately replace the word ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***using***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, capitalize the ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***u***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***; if not, keep using lower-cased.

Be aware of the different meanings of the homophones ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***affect***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** and ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***effect***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***complement***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** and ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***compliment***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***discreet***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** and ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***discrete***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***principal***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** and ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***principle***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

Do not confuse ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***imply***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** and ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***infer***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

The prefix ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***non***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** is not a word; it should be joined to the word it modifies, usually without a hyphen.

There is no period after the ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***et***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** in the Latin abbreviation ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***et al.***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.

The abbreviation ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***i.e.***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** means ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***that is***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***, and the abbreviation ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***e.g.***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE*** means ***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***for example***INVALID BYTE SEQUENCE HERE***.