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Farmlands Degradation with Intensive Agricultural Practices and Human Health Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Province Punjab, Pakistan
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  • Javed Nawab,
  • Sardar Khan,
  • Zia Din ,
  • Shah Faisal,
  • Abid Ali,
  • Zia Rahman,
  • Mehboob Alam,
  • Amir Khan,
  • Muhammad Khan,
  • Attaullah Khan
Javed Nawab
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Sardar Khan
University of Peshawar
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Zia Din
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Shah Faisal
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Abid Ali
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Zia Rahman
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Mehboob Alam
The University of Agriculture Peshawar
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Amir Khan
University of Peshawar
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Muhammad Khan
University of Peshawar
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Attaullah Khan
Abdul Wali Khan University
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Abstract

Farmlands contamination with heavy metals (HMs) can be considered as a global issue especially in developing countries. The current study investigates the various pollution indices, potential ecological risk index (PERI) and human health risk caused by HMs in some selected regions of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Farmlands soil samples were collected, acid extracted and analyzed via ICP-MS (Agilent 7500c) for selected HMs. All the HMs were found within permissible limits set by worldwide regulatory authorities except Cd which exceeded its limit in 68% agricultural soils of the study area. The CF values for Cd showed high (CF≥6) degree of contamination to considerable contamination (3≤CF≤6). The CD values indicated low (CD≤6) contamination to moderate (6dermal>inhalation. Furthermore, the RI values were observed higher than 1.0×10–4 for Cd (Lahore and Faisalabad regions) and Cr (Multan and Faisalabad regions) in children working in farmlands and likely exposed to high cancer risk. So, minimization of pollutants must be the top priority of the state to reduce contaminants inputs and immobilization in soil through environmental protection laws and regulations

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

13 Nov 2020Submitted to Land Degradation & Development
25 Nov 2020Submission Checks Completed
25 Nov 2020Assigned to Editor
29 Nov 2020Reviewer(s) Assigned
15 Jan 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
16 Jan 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
13 Feb 20211st Revision Received
15 Feb 2021Submission Checks Completed
15 Feb 2021Assigned to Editor
15 Mar 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
21 Mar 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
19 Apr 20212nd Revision Received
20 Apr 2021Submission Checks Completed
20 Apr 2021Assigned to Editor
07 May 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
15 May 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
05 Jun 20213rd Revision Received
16 Jun 2021Submission Checks Completed
16 Jun 2021Assigned to Editor
18 Jun 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
19 Jun 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
05 Jul 20214th Revision Received
06 Jul 2021Submission Checks Completed
06 Jul 2021Assigned to Editor
13 Jul 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
17 Jul 2021Editorial Decision: Accept