Vaccines are essential public health tools with a favorable safety profile and prophylactic effectiveness that have historically played significant roles in reducing infectious disease burden in populations, when the majority of individuals are vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines are expected to have similar positive impacts on health across the globe. While serious allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, their underlying mechanisms and implications for clinical management should be considered to provide individuals with the safest care possible. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of allergic adverse reactions that can potentially occur after vaccination and individual vaccine components capable of causing the allergic adverse reactions. We present the incidence of allergic adverse reactions during clinical studies and through post-authorization and post-marketing surveillance and provide plausible causes of these reactions based on potential allergenic components present in several common vaccines. Additionally, we review implications for individual diagnosis and management and vaccine manufacturing overall. Finally, we suggest areas for future research.
This systematic review evaluates the efficacy and safety of biologicals for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) compared to the standard of care. Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs. Critical and important CRSwNP-related outcomes were considered. The risk of bias and the certainty of the evidence were assessed using GRADE. RCTs evaluated (dupilumab-2, omalizumab-4, mepolizumab-2, reslizumab-1) included 1236 adults, with follow-up 20-64 weeks. Dupilumab reduces the need for surgery (NFS) and oral corticosteroid (OCS) use (RR 0.28; 95%CI 0.20-0.39, moderate certainty) and improves with high certainty smell (mean difference (MD) +10.54; 95%CI +9.24 to +11.84) and quality of life (QoL) (MD -19.14; 95%CI 95%CI -22.80 to -15.47), with fewer treatment-related adverse events (TAEs) (RR 0.95; 95%CI 0.89-1.02, moderate certainty). Omalizumab reduces NFS (RR 0.85; 95%CI 0.78 to 0.92, high certainty), decreases OCS use (RR 0.38; 95%CI 0.10-1.38, moderate certainty), improves with high certainty smell (MD +3.84; 95%CI +3.64 to +4.04) and QoL (MD -15.65; 95%CI -16.16 to -15.13), with increased TAE (RR 1.73; 95%CI 0.60-5.03, moderate certainty). There is low certainty for mepolizumab reducing NFS (RR 0.78; 95%CI 0.64 to 0.94) and improving QoL (MD -13.3; 95% CI -23.93 to -2.67) and smell (MD +0.7; 95%CI -0.48 to +1.88), with increased TAEs (RR 1.64; 95%CI 0.41-6.50). The evidence for reslizumab is very uncertain.
Background: Chronic rhinitis (CR) is currently defined as at least two nasal symptoms present for at least 1 hour per day for more than 12 weeks per year. Such definition lacks evidence-based foundation. Depending on the most troublesome symptom, CR patients are often divided into ‘runners’ and ‘blockers’, although the evidence supporting such subdivision is limited. The aim of the current study was to define CR, and to estimate its prevalence and the prevalence of the ‘runners’ and ‘blockers’ subtypes. Methods: Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in a random sample of participants representing the general population of the Netherlands. Results: The questionnaire was sent to 5000 residents; the response rate was 27%. CR was defined as at least 1 nasal complaint present for more than 3 weeks per year. The prevalence of CR in the general population was 40%. Participants who were excluded by the former CR definition (i.e. nasal complaints present for less than 1 hour per day, only one complaint, duration of complaints for 3-12 weeks per year) were shown to have a significantly higher VAS compared to the control group. The larger part of CR group was represented by non-allergic rhinitis (NAR): 70% vs 30%. There were 25% ‘Blockers’ and 22% ‘Runners’ in the CR group, whereas more than a half of the CR group could be classified in neither of these subgroups. Conclusion: Based on our data, we propose a new definition of CR: at least one nasal complaint present for at least 3 weeks per year.