Optimizing Snake Antivenom Distribution in Colombia


Snakebite has been called “the most neglected of neglected tropical diseases”, and is a serious issue worldwide ({}). In spite of not being an infectious condition, the World Health Organization declared snakebite a neglected tropical disease in 2009 due to the magnitude of the public health problem it poses (Organization 2010). Global estimates of snakebite have been as high as 1,841,000 cases per year, while yearly deaths are estimated to reach up to 94,000 (Kasturiratne 2008). Snakebite, unlike other tropical diseases, has a high mortality/morbidity rate, and thus needs proper health care and antivenom administration immediately after a bite. This is particularly a problem in Colombia, which has one of the highest snakebite incidence rates of the Americas, with estimates around 4,500 cases per year (Gutiérrez 2011).

Distribution of snake antivenom in Colombia is ordinarily managed through private health providers (Entidades Promotoras de Salud, EPS), responsible for the acquisition and distribution of antivenom according to its demand within the health centers under their jurisdiction (ngela María Zambrano Ospina). Additionally, the Emergency and Disaster Group of the Ministry of Health distributes a strategic stock of antivenom through Regulatory Centers of Emergencies and Disasters (Centros Reguladores de Emergencias y Desastres, CRUE) in each department according to epidemiological data in periods of antivenom shortage (ngela María Zambrano Ospina). This is particularly relevant in Colombia’s present situation: the country has been in a state of public health emergency due to antivenom shortage for the past twelve months, a state which was recently extended to last for at least another year (sad 2011).

In consequence, there is no unified inventory of antivenom distribution in Colombia, and each producer manages its own distribution (ngela María Zambrano Ospina). Due to this confusing, fragmented distribution system, antivenom is often unavailable in regions where it is needed. There is a need to establish a distribution policy to optimize storage availability, inventory of isolated regions in high risk areas, and organization of health centers. The aim of this project is to use statistical methods and network theory to develop an optimization strategy for snake antivenom distribution in Colombia, based on current transportation networks and epidemiological data.


1) Geographical factors: In order to create a better distribution method of antivenoms we look at the infrastructure of Colombian Medical Centers distribution. Also, we look at the shorter distance and time based on streets of every spatial point in Colombia to a Medical Center based in Geographical Information Systems.

2) Epidemiological factors: We process data from health vigilance in Colombia (SIVIGILA) for snakebite. That data is on a municipal scale and we taked the number of snakebite cases from 2007 to 2013. Also, we will supose a death rate caused by snakebite based on total Colombia mortality due to envenoming by these animals.

Research question

Can be the snake antivenom distribution on Colombia be optimizied to minimize costs and deaths?


Colombian deaths and costs due to snakebite can be minimized by a optimal distribution of snake antivenom based on a centralized model which is being applied in Brazil (REFERENCIA)


  1. . . 51, 1–16 (2011).

  2. World Health Organization, others. First WHO report on neglected tropical diseases: working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. (2010).

  3. Anuradhani Kasturiratne, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Nilanthi de Silva, N Kithsiri Gunawardena, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Ranjan Premaratna, Lorenzo Savioli, David G Lalloo, H Janaka de Silva, others. The global burden of snakebite: a literature analysis and modelling based on regional estimates of envenoming and deaths. PLoS Med 5, e218 (2008).

  4. JM Gutiérrez, others. Snakebite poisoning in Latin America and the Caribbean: an integral view from a regional perspective.. Boletin De Malariologia Y Salud Ambiental 51, 1–16 (2011).

  5. Á ngela María Zambrano Ospina. Snake bites as events of public health interest in Colombia: contributions to the design of management strategies.

  6. as sad. amskmka. sad 51, 1–16 (2011).

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