Background Anaemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is associated with reduced health-related quality of life and physical functioning. This study investigated the knowledge, perceptions and awareness of anaemia in patients with CKD in the United States. Methods Between 29 August and 17 September 2018, an online survey was administered to consenting patients in the United States aged ≥ 18 years with self-reported CKD, with or without anaemia; patients with cancer were excluded. The survey comprised 27 questions, exploring anaemia knowledge, health-related quality of life, anaemia management, practitioner–patient relationships, and the information sources patients used. Results Of 446 patients with CKD, 255 (57.2%) were diagnosed with anaemia and 191 (42.8%) reported not being diagnosed with anaemia, or were unsure/could not remember (non-anaemia cohort). In patients with anaemia, 71.0% were aware of the relationship between CKD and anaemia versus 52.9% of those in the non-anaemia cohort. In the anaemia cohort, 46.3% of patients were aware of their haemoglobin level, compared with 27.2% of patients in the non-anaemia cohort. Symptoms most commonly reported as being made worse by anaemia included lack of energy (82.4%), feeling ill (31.4%), and the ability to enjoy life (30.2%). Despite 67.4% of patients with anaemia in CKD believing that their condition was well or very well managed, only 50% reported being informed about different treatments without having to prompt their healthcare professional, and 43.9% were seeking more information and support about managing their condition. Conclusions In the United States, patients with anaemia and CKD perceived that anaemia had a negative impact on their physical health and emotional wellbeing. Our findings emphasize the lack of disease awareness regarding anaemia in patients with CKD, suggesting that patients would benefit from further education regarding its management, and available treatment options.