While both the incidence and general awareness of food allergies is increasing, the variety and clinical availability of therapeutics remain limited. Therefore, investigations into the potential factors contributing to the development of food allergy and the mechanisms of natural tolerance or induced desensitization are required. In addition, a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of food allergies is needed to generate compelling, enduring, and safe treatment options. New findings regarding the contribution of barrier function, the effect of emollient interventions, mechanisms of allergen recognition, and the contributions of specific immune cell subsets through rodent models and human clinical studies provide novel insights. With the first approved treatment for peanut allergy, the clinical management of food allergy is evolving towards less intensive, alternative approaches involving fixed doses, lower maintenance dose targets, co-administration of biologicals, adjuvants, and tolerance-inducing formulations. The ultimate goal is to improve immunotherapy and develop precision-based medicine via risk phenotyping allowing optimal treatment for each food-allergic patient.
Soft tissue sarcomas in neonates are rare and heterogeneous tumors. We report an aggressive neonatal undifferentiated round cell sarcoma with a YWHAE:NUTM2B fusion. The tumor was identified antenatally and the neonate underwent surgical resection at four days of age. Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of tumour and germline was undertaken to provide molecular characterization and elucidate possible novel therapies. In addition to molecular characterization of a YWHAE:NUTM2B fusion, RNA expression outliers were described. Targeted therapy was not pursued due to rapid clinical decline. Understanding the genomic profile of rare tumors remains important in the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Article Type: News and Views: Groundbreaking Discoveries in ImmunologyTitle: Emollients for the prevention of atopic dermatitisAuthors: Akash Kothari1(https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1980-161X), Arielle Locke2,Thomas Eiwegger1,3,4(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2914-7829)1Translational Medicine Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada2Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland3Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada4Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCorrespondence to: Thomas Eiwegger, MD, Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel.: +1 416-813-7654 ext. 1862Conflicts of Interest: AK and AL have nothing to disclose. TE reports to act as local PI for company sponsored trials by DBV and sub-investigator for Regeneron, holds grants from Innovation Fund Denmark, CIHR outside the submitted work. He is Co-Investigator or scientific lead in three investigator initiated oral immunotherapy trials supported by the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program SickKids and serves as associate editor for Allergy. He/his lab received unconditional/in-kind contributions from Macro Array Diagnostics and an unrestricted grant from ALK. He holds advisory board roles for ALK.Financial support: This work was supported by The Hospital for Sick Children, The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program at The Hospital for Sick Children, and The Dr Lorus J And Dr Margery J Milne Scholarship from Victoria University at the University of Toronto.Statement of Author Contribution: All authors critically reviewed the original articles (references 6 and 7) and wrote the News & Views: Groundbreaking discoveries in Immunology article. All authors contributed, revised, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.Keywords: emollient, atopic eczema, infancyAbbreviations : food allergy, FA; filaggrin gene, FLG; atopic dermatitis, AD; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; Barrier Enhancement for Eczema Prevention, BEEP; Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and Allergies, PreventADALL