M Keighobadi

and 7 more

Human linguatulosis is a considerable medical problem in endemic regions. The infection is caused by a cosmopolitanfood-borne zoonoticparasiteLinguatula serrata (L. serrata) belonging to class pentastomida.Adult parasitesreside in upper respiratory system, nasal airways and sinuses of carnivorous animals as their final hosts.Herbivorous and other ruminants as intermediate hosts reserve immatureform of parasite in mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs and spleen. Human get infection with both adult and nymph stages of parasite.Halzoun syndrome(Marrara syndrome) is the most common form of human nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is transmitted through ingestion of L. serrata nymphs (adult stage) found in intermediate host’s organs and resulting in nasopharyngeal linguatulosis with signs of pharyngitis, salivation, dysphagia, and cough.r. This review includes previous studies on L. serrata conducted in Iran and other countries from 1940 to 2019. A systematic search is undertaken on five English and five Persian databases for English or Persian publications describing human linguatulosiscases in the world .Totally, 30 papers reporting 62human linguatulosiscases from various regions of the world are included in this review.All included papers were from the English databases. The age of patients ranged from 8 to 79 years, and the mean age was 25.8 years. Of all the patients, 41(66.1%) were female and 21(33.9%)were male. The highest number of cases (n = 25) was reported from Sudan.The nasopharynxwas the most commonly reported anatomical location of human linguatulosis cases.As a result, we think that physicians should consider L. serratainfestation in patients attending to the health foundations with complaintssuch as pharyngitis, accompanied by pharyngeal pain,coughing, sneezing and vomiting.
Food handlers regardless whether preparing or serving food, key roles in transmission of food-borne infections. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food handlers. In present study, a comprehensive literature search was carried out in electronic databases including: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Magiran, Scientific Information Database (SID), Iran Medex and Iran Doc to identify all the published studies from 2000 to 31st April, 2019. A total of 25 articles from different regions of Iran identified and fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Totally 140447 cases were examined and 1163 cases were infected with intestinal parasites. Of all cases, 19516 were male and 5901 were female with 1163 and 652 infected case respectively. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was evaluated 14% [95%CI: 11-17%]. Results indicated that protozoan such as Giardia lamblia, with prevalence of 41.0% [95%CI: 25.0%-59.0%], Blastosystice hominis with 28% [95%CI: 15.0%-44.0%] and Entamoaba coli with 22.0% [95%CI: 16.0%-29.0%] had the highest prevalence while, Dientamoeba fragilis 5.0% [95%CI: 4.0%-7.0%], Iodamoeba. bütschlii 5.0% [95%CI: 2.0%-8.0%], Chilomastix mesnili 5.0% [95%CI: 2.0%-9.0%] and Endolimax. nana with 3.0% [95%CI: 1.0%-7.0%], were less prevalent. Infection with Ascaris lumbricoides 7.0% [95%CI: 0.0%-29.0%] was more prevalent helminthes followed with Enterobius vermicularis 3.0% [95%CI: 1.0%-5.0%], Hymenolepis nana 2.0% [95%CI: 1.0%-3.0%], Taenia spp 2.0% [95%CI: 0.0%-7.0%] and Trichuris. trichiura 1.0% [95%CI: 0.0%-1.0%]. Our results revealed the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers in Iran. Monitoring programs to prevent and controlling of transmission to individuals are needed