Background and Purpose Ca2+ influx via TRPV4 triggers Ca2+ release from the IP3-sensitive internal store to generate repetitive oscillations. While mitochondria are acknowledged regulators of IP3-mediated Ca2+ release, how TRPV4-mediated Ca2+ signals are regulated by mitochondria is unknown. We show that depolarised mitochondria switch TRPV4 signalling from relying on Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release at IP3 receptors, to being independent of Ca2+ influx and instead mediated by ATP release via pannexins. Experimental Approach TRPV4 evoked Ca2+ signals were individually examined in hundreds of cells in the endothelium of rat mesenteric resistance arteries using the indicator Cal520. Key ResultsTRPV4 activation with GSK1016790A(GSK) generated repetitive Ca2+ oscillations that required Ca2+ influx. However, when the mitochondrial membrane potential was depolarised, by the uncoupler CCCP or complex I inhibitor rotenone, TRPV4 activation generated large propagating, multicellular, Ca2+ waves in the absence of external Ca2+. The ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin did not potentiate TRPV4 mediated Ca2+ signals. GSK-evoked Ca2+ waves, when mitochondria were depolarised, were blocked by the TRPV4 channel blocker HC067047, the SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, the phospholipase C (PLC) blocker U73122 and the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3 R) blocker caffeine. The Ca2+ waves were also inhibited by the extracellular ATP blockers suramin and apyrase and the pannexin blocker probenecid. Conclusion and Implications These results highlight a previously unknown role of mitochondria in shaping TRPV4 mediated Ca2+ signalling by facilitating ATP release. When mitochondria are depolarised, TRPV4-mediated release of ATP via pannexin channels activates plasma membrane purinergic receptors to trigger IP3 evoked Ca2+ release.
Background and Purpose Coordinated endothelial control of cardiovascular function is proposed to occur by endothelial cell communication via gap junctions and connexins. To study intercellular communication, the pharmacological agents carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) are used widely as connexin inhibitors and gap junction blockers. Experimental Approach We investigated the effects of CBX and 18βGA on IP3-evoked intercellular Ca2+ waves in the endothelium of intact mesenteric resistance arteries. Key Results Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked IP3-mediated Ca2+ release and propagated waves were inhibited by CBX (100µM) and 18βGA (40µM). Unexpectedly, the Ca2+ signals were inhibited uniformly in all cells, suggesting that CBX and 18βGA reduced Ca2+ release. Localised photolysis of caged IP3 (cIP3) was used to provide precise spatiotemporal control of site of cell activation. Local cIP3 photolysis generated reproducible Ca2+ increases and Ca2+ waves that propagated across cells distant to the photolysis site. CBX and 18βGA each blocked Ca2+ waves in a time dependent manner by inhibiting the initiating IP3-evoked Ca2+ release event rather than block of gap junctions. This effect was reversed on drug washout, and was unaffected by small or intermediate K+-channel blockers. Furthermore, CBX and 18βGA each rapidly and reversibly collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusion and Implications CBX and 18βGA inhibit IP3-mediated Ca2+ release and depolarise the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that CBX and 18βGA block cell-cell communication by acting at sites that are unrelated to gap junctions.