Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been successfully used in the diagnosis of different pulmonary diseases. Present study design to determine the diagnostic value of LUS in the evaluation of children with COVID-19, and to compare chest X-ray and LUS results with tomography (CT).   Method and objectives: In this prospective multi-center study, 40 children with confirmed COVID-19 were included. LUS was performed to all patients at admission. The chest X‐ray and CT were performed according to the decision of the primary physicians. LUS results were compared with chest X-ray and CT. The sensitivity and specificity and diagnostic performance was determined. Results: Of the 40 children median (range) was 10.5 (0.4-17.8) years. Chest X-ray and LUS were performed on all and chest CT was performed on 28 (70%) patients at the time of diagnosis. Sixteen (40%) patients had no apparent chest CT abnormalities suggestive of COVID-19, whereas 12 (30%) had abnormalities. LUS confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in 10 out of 12 patients with positive CT findings. LUS demonstrated normal lung patterns among 15 patients out of 16 who had normal CT features. The sensitivity identified by the chest X-ray and LUS tests was comparedand statistically significantly different (p=0.016). Chest X-ray displayed false-negative results for pulmonary involvement in 75% whereas for LUS it was 16.7%. Conclusions: LUS might be a useful tool in the diagnostic steps of children with COVID-19. A reduction in chest CT assessments may be possible when LUS is used in the initial diagnostic steps for these children.
Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors of recurrent pulmonary exacerbation and poor prognosis in children with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH).  Methods: In this multicenter study, 54 patinets with diagnosis of IPH included. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from three tertiary care hospitals between 1979 and 2019. Also, current information and the long-term progress of patients was determined by contacting the families by telephone. Results: A total of 54 children were included. The median age of onset of symptoms was 4.5 ± 3.8 years. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 0.9 years ± 2.2. The mean number of recurrent episodes per child in the recurrence-positive group was 3.55 (1-15). Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients presenting with hypoxia or requiring transfusion at the time of presentation had significantly more recurrence episodes (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of hypoxia at the time of initial presentation was a significant independent predictor of recurrent episodes (P=0.027). The median follow-up was 3.3 ± 4.8 years (0.75 months-27 years). There was a significant relationship between the presence of hypoxia, transfusion history, ANA positivity, and elevated transaminases at the time of initial evaluation and treatment response. Conclusions: The present study provides important information on the clinical course and outcome of pediatric IPH, and substantial information regarding factors that affect recurrent exacerbations and prognosis. Demonstrating of hypoxia as an independent risk factor in recurrence episodes could be guide physicians in the planning of treatment strategies.