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Gallic acid attenuates blood-spinal cord barrier disruption by inhibiting Jmjd3 expression and activation after spinal cord injury
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  • Chan Sol Park,
  • Jee Lee,
  • Hae Young Choi,
  • Kwanghyun Lee,
  • Yeonju Heo,
  • Bong Gun Ju,
  • Hea-Young Park-Choo,
  • Tae Yune
Chan Sol Park
Age-Related and Brain Diseases Research Center, Kyung Hee University
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Jee Lee
Kyung Hee University
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Hae Young Choi
Age-Related and Brain Diseases Research Center, Kyung Hee University
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Kwanghyun Lee
Department of Life Science, Sogang University
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Yeonju Heo
School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Bong Gun Ju
Department of Life Science, Sogang University
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Hea-Young Park-Choo
School of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Tae Yune
Kyung Hee University
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Abstract

Background and Purpose: After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption results in secondary injury including apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes, thereby leads to permanent neurological deficits. Recently, we reported that the histone H3K27me3 demethylase Jmjd3 plays a role in regulating BSCB integrity after SCI. Here, we investigated whether gallic acid (GA), a natural phenolic compound that is known to be anti-inflammatory, regulates Jmjd3 expression and activation, thereby attenuates BSCB disruption following the inflammatory response and improves functional recovery after SCI. Experimental Approach: Rats were contused at T9 and treated with GA (50 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection immediately, 6 h and 12 h after SCI, and further treated for 7 d with the same dose once a day. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we evaluated Jmjd3 activity and expression, and assessed BSCB permeability by Evans blue assay after SCI. Key Results: GA significantly inhibited Jmjd3 expression and activation after injury both in vitro and in vivo. GA also attenuated the expression and activation of matrix metalloprotease-9, which is well known to disrupt the BSCB after SCI. Consistent with these findings, GA attenuated BSCB disruption and reduced the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages compared with the vehicle control. Finally, GA significantly alleviated apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes and improved behavior functions. Conclusions and Implications: Based on these data, we propose that GA can exert a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting Jmjd3 activity and expression followed the downregulation of matrix metalloprotease-9, eventually attenuating BSCB disruption after SCI.

Peer review status:Published

Sep 2020Published in Neurobiology of Disease on pages 105077. 10.1016/j.nbd.2020.105077