Awesome Roller Coaster!    Design, construct, and test a roller coaster at least one loopStandards:Science : NGSS :MS-ESS3-2 : Earth and Human ActivityEngineering:  NGSS: MS-ETS1 : Engineering DesignMathematics: Common Core Standard: CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.5,  CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.SP.A.2 ,  CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.SP.A.1   Learning Objectives:Students apply physics concept about potential energy and kinetic energy.Students know the relationship between height and speed  Materials:wooden stick / foam pipeMarble / ping-pong  ballduct tapestopwatchscissorsGlue gunVocabulary:gravitationkinetic energypotential energyspeedroller coasterLiteracy Resources :Build A Roller Coaster (Using Maths 2) by Hilary Koll, 2006Roller Coaster: Wooden, and steel coasters, Twisters and cockscrews by David BennettLesson Activities:Place students into groups of two or three. Working with a partner, creating a design of structure of roller coaster on the paper.  Creating a rampStudents try with ping-pong ball /marble at the highest end of the ramp, record the time of how long the ball to move from the top of the ramp to the bottom, by using stopwatchMeasure the length of the rampUsing formula of Speed = Distance * Time to find the value of speedStudents can modify the ramp, increasing height of the ramp, they can see how the speed of the ball changes depending on the height of the rampStudents complete the design of prototype roller coaster, build a loop of roller coaster, adding color of the rail, or adding LED lamp into the rail        Engineering Task:Each group will design and construct a prototype of roller coaster with one loop. Once the ball successfully travel through the roller coaster, calculate the speed if the ball when the starting point is set at three different heights (in 5 centimetres apart).Use the duct tape to secure the starting point of the roller coaster to a solid surface. Students measure and record the height of starting point from the groundTest/Trial:the ball/marble must travel the entire length of roller coaster unassisted. Students record the time it takes for the ball to reach the end of the track.  Collect this data for calculating speed of the ball.  (Speed = Distance * Time)Analyze:Doing discussions comparing height, speed, and the designs of the different roller coaster prototypes. Students can reflect on their design compared to others and they can modify to make it better