The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which has caused millions of confirmed infections and thousands of deaths, has been the most devastating worldwide crises recently. The main clinical symptoms of confirmed COVID-19 cases include fever, dry cough, general fatigue, respiratory symptoms, diarrhoea and sore throat, similar to those of acute respiratory distress syndrome. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, belongs to a novel coronavirus strain against which no drug or vaccine currently exists. Therefore, research units around the world have been actively developing efficient diagnostic tools and new drugs. This review summarises the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, analyses the viral genome sequence and life cycle, identifies methods for preventing viral transmission, discusses possible molecular pharmacologic mechanisms and approaches in the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus therapeutic agents and introduces management measures against COVID-19 in Taiwan, especially policies for a name-based mask distribution system. Finally, we summarise traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for COVID-19. Based on all the information accumulated in this review, development of novel anti-viral agents, vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 therapy or an effective combination therapy can be expected. Finally, we would like to extend our best regards to the frontline health workers in their global fight against COVID-19.