Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the important health concerns and a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Objective: To investigate the potential and absolute risk factor(s) associated with PTB and also to understand the overall trend of the prevalence rate of PTB among the Indian population. Materials and methods: Search from PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and web of science databases were included in assessing prevalence rate of PTB as well as evaluating association between various risk factors and preterm birth. Results: The prevalence rate of PTB is varied across the country and it ranges from 2% to 25.6%. The overall pooled risk of PTB varies with different risk factors such as gestational hypertension shows 19.16% (95% CI 8.54 to 29.78, I2 = 84.09 %); 9.49% for gravida (95% CI 2.99 to 16.00, I2 = 86.07%), 8.34 % for anaemia (95% CI 4.45 to 12.24, I2 = 79.88%)]; 8.34% for prior preterm birth (95% CI 4.45 to 12.24, I2 = 94.89%)] and4.61% for gestational diabetes (95% CI 1.48 to 7.73, I2 = 53.27%)];. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, inadequate antenatal care, infections during pregnancy, and advance maternal age, are also found to be potential risk factors of PTB among the Indian population. Conclusions: The rate of PTB in Indian population is above the rate estimated by WHO. Most of the etiological factors of PTB are modifiable and hence giving community awareness on its ill effects and preconception counselling should be emphasize to address the health consequences of PTB.