Many long-term genetic monitoring programs began before next-generation sequencing became widely available. Older programs can now transition to new marker systems usually consisting of 1000s of SNP loci, but there are still important questions about comparability, precision, and accuracy of key metrics estimated using SNPs. Ideally, transitioned programs should capitalize on new information without sacrificing continuity of inference across the time series. We combined existing microsatellite-based genetic monitoring information with SNP-based microhaplotypes obtained from archived samples of Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) across a 20-year time series to evaluate point estimates and trajectories of key genetic metrics. Demographic and genetic monitoring bracketed multiple collapses of the wild population, and included cases where captive-born repatriates comprised the majority of spawners in the wild. Even with smaller sample sizes, microhaplotypes yielded comparable and in some cases more precise estimates of variance genetic effective population size, multilocus heterozygosity and inbreeding compared to microsatellites because many more microhaplotype loci were available. Microhaplotypes also recorded shifts in allele frequencies associated with population bottlenecks. Trends in microhaplotype-based inbreeding metrics were associated with the fraction of hatchery-reared repatriates to the wild, and should be incorporated into future genomic monitoring. Although differences in accuracy and precision of some metrics were observed between marker types, biological inferences and management recommendations were consistent.
Many salmonid species exist in highly structured and isolated populations, and are susceptible to habitat fragmentation and disturbances. Gila Trout (Oncorhynchus gilae) is a threatened species found in the Southwestern United States. Gila trout is managed to preserve remnant populations (i.e. lineages) distributed across a fragmented landscape. We evaluated genomic variation within and among remaining lineages of Gila Trout using RADseq to assess how drift and selection have structured populations using neutral and outlier loci. We also examined whether a signature of hybridization was evident in relict populations. Despite Gila Trout lineages being significantly differentiated and highly structured with low effective population sizes, we found that most lineages maintained genomic diversity and were potentially locally adapted. Hybridization with non-native Rainbow Trout (O. mykiss) was not detected in any lineage. Some lineages may have experienced recent population bottlenecks perhaps associated with mortality from drought and severe wildfires. Current management strategies should be reevaluated and adapted to better account for long-term effects of climate change. Specifically, we suggest reconnecting some populations via dendritic stream networks to facilitate natural dispersal in a metapopulation context. This would allow natural genetic mixing on the landscape and potentially increase adaptive potential. Furthermore, genetic rescue should be implemented to preserve integrity of the unique Spruce Creek lineage that is currently compromised by extremely low diversity.