Lauren Dixon

and 7 more

Objectives: Female sex is considered a risk factor for mortality and morbidity following cardiac surgery. This study is the first to review the UK adult cardiac surgery national database to compare outcomes following surgical coronary revascularisation and valvular procedures between females and males. Methods: Using data from National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit (NACSA), we identified all elective and urgent, isolated coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG), aortic valve replacement (AVR) and mitral valve replacement/repair (MVR) procedures from 2010-2018. We compared baseline data, operative data and outcomes of mortality, stroke, renal failure, deep sternal wound infection, return to theatre for bleeding and length of hospital stay. Multivariable mixed-effect logistical/linear regression models were used to assess relationships between sex and outcomes, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results: Females, compared to males, had greater odds of experiencing 30-day mortality (CABG OR 1.76, CI 1.47-2.09, p<0.001; AVR OR 1.59, CI 1.27-1.99, p<0.001; MVR OR 1.37, CI 1.09-1.71, p=0.006). After CABG, females also had higher rates of post-operative dialysis (OR 1.31, CI 1.12-1.52, p<0.001), deep sternal wound infections (OR 1.43, CI 1.11-1.83, p=0.005) and longer length of hospital stay (Beta 1.2, CI 1.0-1.4, p<0.001) compared to males. Female sex was protective against returning to theatre for post-operative bleeding following CABG (OR 0.76, CI 0.65-0.87, p<0.001) and AVR (OR 0.72, CI 0.61-0.84, p<0.001). Conclusion: Females in the UK have an increased risk of short-term mortality after cardiac surgery compared to males. This highlights the need to focus on the understanding of the causes behind these disparities and implementation of strategies to improve outcomes in females.

Gianni Angelini

and 11 more

Background: The success of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) is dependent on long-term graft patency, which is negatively related to early wall thickening. Avoiding high-pressure distension testing for leaks and preserving the surrounding pedicle of fat and adventitia during vein harvesting may reduce wall thickening. Methods: A single-centre, factorial randomised controlled trial was carried out to compare the impact of testing for leaks under high versus low pressure and harvesting the vein with versus without the pedicle in patients undergoing CABG. The primary outcomes were graft wall thickness, as indicator of medial-intimal hyperplasia, and lumen diameter assessed using intravascular ultrasound after 12 months. Results: 96 eligible participants were recruited. With conventional harvest, low-pressure testing tended to yield a thinner vessel wall compared to high-pressure (mean difference MD (low minus high) -0.059mm, 95%CI -0.12, +0.0039, p=0.066). With high pressure testing, veins harvested with the pedicle fat tended to have a thinner vessel wall than those harvested conventionally (MD (pedicle minus conventional) -0.057mm, 95%CI -0.12, +0.0037, p=0.066, test for interaction p=0.07). Lumen diameter was similar across groups (harvest comparison p=0.81; pressure comparison p=0.24). Low pressure testing was associated with fewer hospital admissions in the 12 months following surgery (p=0.0008). Harvesting the vein with the pedicle fat was associated with more complications during the index admission (p=0.0041). Conclusions: Conventional saphenous vein graft preparation with low pressure distension and harvesting the vein with a surrounding pedicle yielded similar graft wall thickness after 12 months, but low pressure was associated with fewer adverse events.