Properdin is the only one positive regulator of the complement system. In this study, we characterize the prevalence, functional consequences and disease associations of autoantibodies against properdin in a cohort of patients with autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suffering from lupus nephritis (LN). We detected autoantibodies against properdin in plasma of 22.5% of the LN patients (16/71) by ELISA. The binding of these autoantibodies to properdin was dose-dependent and was validated by surface plasmon resonance. Higher levels of anti-properdin were related to high levels of anti-dsDNA and ANA and to low concentrations of C3 and C4 in patients and also with histological signs of LN activity and chronicity. The high negative predictive value (NPV) of anti-properdin and anti-dsDNA combination suggested that patients who are both negative for anti-properdin and anti-dsDNA will not have severe nephritis. IgG from anti- properdin positive patients’ plasma increased the C3b deposition on late apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. Nevertheless, these IgGs did not modify substantially the binding of properdin to C3b, the C3 convertase C3bBb and the pro-convertase C3bB, evaluated by surface plasmon resonance. In conclusion, anti- properdin autoantibodies exist in LN patients. They have weak but relevant functional consequences, which could have pathological significance.