Also investigate how the potential distribution of this species changes with the addition of new records over the decades (decade effect). Assuming that (1: hypothesis of the effect of the decade) the addition of new occurrence records over time increases the potential size of the species distribution; and (2: Wallacean distance hypothesis) over the years, the new points added are increasingly distant from the research centers. Considering the geographic knowledge gap of Histiotu velatus, our objective is to report a new record of this species and estimate its potential distribution in South America through ENMs. For this, we compiled records of occurrence of species, selected from 1900 to 2015. We used 19 bioclimatic variables available in the WorldCLim database to estimate the potential distribution of the species and we used three modeling algorithms: Maximum Entropy (MXT) Random Forest (RDF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). We selected the main bat research centers in Brazil, using the Lattes platform for the Wallacean distance hypothesis, using the Euclidean distance calculation. To test the hypothesis of the decade effect, we used beta regression analysis, taking conservative and non-conservative approaches. The results showed that the predicted area expanded and retracted over the decades, with an improvement in the accuracy of the models with the addition of new data. Most of the records are located in the southeastern region of Brazil, but the algorithms predicted areas in countries where there were no records. Only the conservatism approach has had a positive relationship over the decades. The distance from new points does not increase over the years of research centers.
The identification of the mechanisms underlying co-occurrence patterns of species is a way to identify which processes (niche, neutral or both) structure metacommunities. In this paper, our goals are to identify patterns of co-occurrence in neotropical stream fish and determine which processes structure the metacommunity and the gradients that underlie this structure. Our results pointed out that the metacommunity formed by the total pool of species is structured by a nested pattern (Hyperdispersed Species Loss) of co-occurrence and the mass effect mechanism. On the other hand, a set of core species displays a Clementisian pattern and is structured by the species sorting mechanism. Both, hyperdispersed species loss and the Clementisian patterns point to a discrete set of communities in the metacommunity. These communities could be isolated by physicochemical conditions, or physical barriers, like dams or waterfalls.
Diversity gradients are observed in various groups of organisms. For fishes in streams, the Water-Energy, Productivity and Temporal Heterogeneity hypotheses are considered the best combination to explain richness patterns. The relationship between species diversity and the variables that represent the hypotheses are generally considered linear and stationary, that is, there is equal relation of cause and effect along an entire geographical extension. The assumption of stationarity has not been tested or even observed in diversity gradients, thus producing imprecise models. Therefore, our goal is to quantify stationarity in the existing relationships between the ichthyofauna of streams and the Water-Energy, Productivity and Temporal Heterogeneity hypotheses using a Geographically Weighted Regression – GWR. In the proposed model, there is conspicuous absence of stationarity between fish species richness and the tested hypotheses. Furthermore, water-energy dynamics were observed as a possible metabolic restriction mechanism acting on the community structuring of stream fishes. This mechanism divides the fish fauna from the studied Brazilian watercourses in two regions: i) Amazonian, characterized by a stable climate and populations with little resistance to thermal variation; and ii) Central, featured by greater ranges of temperature and fish populations resistant to thermal variation.