Preparing contributions to CERN reports (school, workshop, and conference proceedings)


This document explains instructions for authoring CERN Reports which are processed by the CERN E-Publishing Service.


Authors must observe the following instructions to ensure consistency and uniformity in the style and layout of CERN Reports. Wherever possible, each contribution will go directly to be printed, without any editing, and should therefore be in its final form.

Although the typesetting rules that are described are of a general nature, the present document emphasizes their use with LaTeX.Templates and more detailed information for Word users are available on the E-Publishing Service Web site (Word Section at the page

Note that it is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission from the copyright holder if material taken from other sources is included in the source submitted as a CERN Report.

Generalities on typing

When submitting your electronic source in LaTeX, you must use the cernrep class file, which is available from the E-Publishing Service Web site ( Moreover, specific instructions for preparing your LaTeX contribution are given in the appendices.

Format for the text

Take care that your material stays inside the text frame which is 16 cm \(\times\) 24 cm (i.e., a A4 sized paper has 3.0 cm margins at the top and at the bottom, and 2.5 cm left and right). This is expecially true for figures and tabular content.

Parts of the text


Your contribution should be preceded by an abstract of not more than 150 words, written as a single paragraph. The abstract should not include notes or references and should provide a brief summary of the work.


Please provide up to a maximum of 6 keywords. These will be used for indexing purposes. You should avoid the use of general and plural terms and use of multiple concepts (avoid using "of" and "and"). Do not use abbreviations unless they are established and easily recognizable in the field.

Sectioning commands and paragraphs


The standard LaTeX commands \section (level 1), \subsection (level 2), \subsubsection (level 3), \subsubsubsection (level 4), should be used for headings. Do not start a new section on a new page, but continue on the same page.

In the text, leave a blank line after each paragraph.



Equations should be treated as part of the text, and therefore punctuated (with a space between the end of the equation and the punctuation mark). Equations are numbered consecutively throughout the report.

An unnumbered single formula is delimited by \[ and \] (alternatively a displaymath environment can be used), while a numbered equation is generated with the equation environment. You should never use the $$ construct. The CERN LaTeX classes automatically load the amsmath class, which offers a large choice of constructs for typesetting mathematics (ß 2015). See also Appendix \ref{app:amsmath} for some hints about using the amsmath extensions in an optimal way.

For cross-referencing equations use the LaTeX commands \label and \ref, as explained in Section 1.9. A simple example, with a cross-reference to a formula, follows.

\section{Section title} \label{sec:mysection} Einstein has expressed the relation between energy $E$ and mass $m$ in his famous equation~(\ref{eq:einstein}): \begin{equation} E=mc^2 \label{eq:einstein} \end{equation}



How to supply figures

Where possible, figures should be prepared electronically. Make sure that the image is of high quality when printed (in black and white) and is of high enough resolution (min. 300 dots per inch). We accept TIFF, PNG,and JPEG files. Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files are preferred, but in any case, send us your illustrations in their original format (PNG, JPEG, etc.), there is no need for you to reprocess them yourself.

Do not use free-hand lettering for the labelling of figures. All lines should be drawn in red or black ink and be heavy enough (min. 0.75 point) and all figures, decimal points, symbols, etc., large enough and sufficiently spaced to ensure clarity when printed at the final size. If using colour, please ensure that the figure prints clearly in greyscale and adapt your text knowing that the difference between coloured items when reproduced in grey is not obvious.

As already mentioned, before using material such as illustrations taken from other sources, do not forget to obtain permission from the copyright holder.

Positioning and layout

All figures must remain within the page area (\(16~{}\text{cm}\) \(\times\) \(24~{}\text{cm}\)), where, if necessary, the page may be turned 90\({}^{\circ}\) to accommodate the figure. When this is done, the caption must be oriented in the same way as the figure, and no other text may appear on that page. The bottom of the turned illustrations should be at the right-hand side of the page.

Including your figure

Figures are included with the figure environment. In the example that follows we include an EPS graphics file (myfig.eps, where the extension .eps does not need to be specified since it is the default) with the \includegraphics command, which is defined in the graphicx package that is loaded by default by the CERN LaTeX classes.

The figure caption (specified as argument of the \caption command), must follow the figure body, and should be brief. No full stop is necessary unless the caption is more than one line long, in which case full punctuation should be used.


An example with a cross-reference to a figure follows. The reference is defined by the \label command following the \caption command. A cross-reference is generated with the \ref command on the second line. Note the cross-reference key (fig:myfig) which clearly indicates that it refers to a figure (see Section 1.9 for a discussion of the importance of using good keys). \section{Section title} In Fig.~\ref{fig:myfig} we see that ... \begin{figure} \centering\includegraphics[width=.9\linewidth]{myfig} \caption{Description of my figure} \label{fig:myfig} \end{figure}

References to figures

LaTeX’s cross-reference mechanism can be used to refer to figures. A figure is defined with the \label command, which must follow the \caption command.

Figures must be referenced in the text in consecutive numerical order with the help of the \ref command. Examples of references to figures and how to produce them follow (see also Table LABEL:tab:predef).

  • ‘Fig. 3’ produced by, e.g., \Fref{fig:myfig} ,

  • ‘Figs. 3–5’ produced by, e.g., \Figures~\ref{fig:myfiga}--\ref{fig:myfigb} ,

  • ‘Figure 3’, produced by, e.g., \Figure[b]~\ref{fig:myfig} . Note the use of the optional argument [b], which indicates that the word ‘Figure’ should be typeset in full, in particular at the beginning of a sentence.

Figures with several parts are cited as follows: ‘Fig. 2(a) and (b), Figs. 3(a)–(c)’.

Figures and illustrations should follow the paragraph in which they are first discussed. If this is not feasible, they may be placed on the following page (LaTeX’s float mechanism takes care of this automatically, in principle). If it is not possible to place all numbered figures in the text, then they should all be placed at the end of the paper.


Tables are defined the the table environment. Each table should be centred on the page width, with a brief caption (specified as argument of the \caption command) preceding the table body.

In general, tables should be open, drawn with a double thin horizontal line (0.4 pt) at the top and bottom, and single horizontal line (0.4 pt) separating column headings from data.

Like figures, tables must be referenced in the text in consecutive numerical order with LaTeX’s \ref command. Examples of cross-references to tables follow (commands that can be used to generate the given text strings are shown between parentheses): ‘Table 5’ (e.g., \Tref{tab:mytab} or \Table~\ref{tab:mytab} ), ‘Tables 2–3’ (e.g., !Tables \ref{tab:mytaba}–\ref{tab:mytabb}!). The word ‘Table’ should never be abbreviated.

Formatting and layout within the table

Write the headings in sentence case but do not use full stops. Units should be entered in parentheses on a separate line below the column heading. (If the same unit is used throughout the table, it should be written in parentheses on a separate line below the caption.)

Unsimilar items should be aligned on the left, whereas similar items should be aligned on the operator or decimal point. All decimal points must be preceded by a digit.

Table captions

Table captions should be brief and placed centrally above the table. No full stop is necessary unless the caption is more than one line long, in which case full punctuation should be used.

Notes in the table

Notes in tables should be designated by superscript lower-case letters, and begun anew for each table. The superscript letter should be placed in alphabetical order moving from left to right across the first row and down to the last. The notes should then be listed directly under the table.

References cited in tables should appear in consecutive numerical order, following the order explained above for notes (left to right, top to bottom). They should appear exactly as references cited in the main body of the document (and be treated as part of the text in terms of numbering, so be careful when moving tables containing references).


An instance of a simple table, following the proposed rules follows. Notice the \hline commands at the beginning and end of the tabular environment to generate the double lines at the top and the bottom of the table, as well as the single \hline command to separate the heading from the data.

\section{Section title} Table~\ref{tab:famous} shows three famous mathematical constants. \begin{table} \caption{Famous constants} \label{tab:famous} \centering \begin{tabular}{lll}\hline\hline symbol & description & approximate value\\\hline $e$ & base of natural logarithm & $2.7182818285$ \\ $\pi$ & ratio circle circumference to diameter & $3.1415926536$ \\ $\phi$ & golden ratio & $1.6180339887$ \\\hline\hline \end{tabular} \end{table}

Bibliographical references


References should be cited in the text using numbers within square brackets: ‘example [1], example [1, 2], example [1–5]’. This is achieved with the \cite command. One can also write ‘see Ref. [1]’, ‘Refs. [1]–[5]’, and, at the beginning of a sentence, ‘Reference [2]’. These strings can be produced as follows (see also Table LABEL:tab:predef).

  • \Bref{bib:mybiba} or \Ref~\cite{bib:mybiba} typeset, e.g., ‘Ref. [1]’.

  • \Refs~\cite{bib:mybiba}--\cite{tab:mybibb} , typesets, e.g., ‘Refs [1–5].

  • \Bref[b]~\ref{bib:mybibc} typesets, e.g., ‘Reference [3]’. The optional argument [b] indicates that the word ‘Reference’ should be typeset in full, in particular at the beginning of a sentence.

Bibliographical references should appear in consecutive numerical order and should be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. Punctuation can be used either within or outside the brackets, but please ensure one method is used consistently throughout the contribution.