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There is some disagreement over the definition of funnel cloud and condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, and thus most tornadoes are included under this definition Pepe 2014. Among many meteorologists, the Moby Dick 2008 term is strictly defined as a rotating cloud which is not associated with strong winds at the surface, and condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. here today, gone tomorrow.

We now utilize the same method to calculate expected visibilities of both dipole and quadrupole modes in stars with \(1.25 \, M_\odot \leq M \leq 3 \, M_\odot\). The ratio of suppressed mode power to normal mode power is \[\label{eqn:vsup} \frac{V_{\rm sup}^2}{V_{\rm norm}^2} = \bigg[ 1 + \Delta \nu \,\tau \,T^2 \bigg]^{-1} \, .\] Here, \(\Delta \nu\) is the large frequency separation, \(\tau\) is the radial mode lifetime, and \(T\) is the wave transmission coefficient through the evanescent zone. The value of \(T\) can be calculated via \[\label{eqn:T} T = \exp \bigg[ - \int^{r_2}_{r_1} dr \sqrt{ - \frac{ \big( L_\ell^2 - \omega^2 \big) \big(N^2 - \omega^2 \big) }{v_s^2 \omega^2} } \bigg] \, .\] Here, \(r_1\) and \(r_2\) are the lower and upper boundaries of the evanescent zone, \(L_\ell^2 = l(l+1)v_s^2/r^2\) is the Lamb frequency squared, \(N\) is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, \(\omega\) is the angular wave frequency, and \(v_s\) is the sound speed. We calculate \(\Delta \nu\) and the frequency of maximum power \(\nu_{\rm max}\) using scaling relations.

This convergence of warm air in the updraft, and this cool air, causes a rotating wall cloud to form. The RFD also focuses the mesocyclone's base, causing it to siphon air from a smaller and smaller Li 2016 area on the ground. As the \(b=mc^2+\int\frac{\sqrt{r}}{d_5}\) updraft intensifies, Langer 2007 it creates an area of low pressure at the surface. This pulls the focused mesocyclone down, in the form of a visible  condensation funnel. As the funnel descends, the RFD also reaches the ground, creating a gust front that can cause severe damage a good distance from the tornado.
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Call me Ishmael. Some years ago - never mind how long precisely - having little or no money in my purse, and nothing particular to interest me on shore, I thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world. It is a way I have of driving off the spleen and regulating the circulation. Whenever I find myself growing grim about the mouth; whenever it is a damp, drizzly November in my soul; whenever I find myself involuntarily pausing before coffin warehouses, and bringing up the rear of every funeral I meet; and especially whenever my hypos get such an upper hand of me, that it requires a strong moral principle to prevent me from deliberately stepping into the street, and methodically knocking people's hats off - then, I account it high time to get to sea as soon as I can. This is my substitute for pistol and ball. With a philosophical flourish Cato throws himself upon his sword; I quietly take to the ship. There is nothing surprising in this. If they but knew it, almost all men in their degree, some time or other, cherish very nearly the same feelings towards the ocean with me. Vernon 2014
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  1. Alberto Pepe, Alyssa Goodman, August Muench, Merce Crosas, Christopher Erdmann. How Do Astronomers Share Data? Reliability and Persistence of Datasets Linked in AAS Publications and a Qualitative Study of Data Practices among US Astronomers. PLoS ONE 9, e104798 Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014. Link

  2. Funnel cloud. Weather 63, 56–56 Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. Link

  3. WG Li, WW Chen, L Li, D Ji, YJ Ji, C Li, XD Gao, LF Wang, M Zhao, XZ Duan, HJ Duan. The etiology of Ebola virus disease-like illnesses in Ebola virusnegative patients from Sierra Leone.. Oncotarget (2016).

  4. Norbert Langer, Matteo Cantiello, Sung-Chul Yoon, Ian Hunter, Ines Brott, Danny Lennon, Selma de Mink, Marcel Verheijdt. Rotation and Massive Close Binary Evolution. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 3 Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2007. Link

  5. Zackary Vernon. Being Myriad One: Melville and the Ecological Sublime in Faulkner’s Go Down, Moses. Studies in the Novel 46, 63–82 Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014. Link

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