Covid virus 3d

Alberto Pepe

and 4 more

We're in a crisis We are in the midst of an unprecedented global crisis. Just weeks since its outbreak, the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has already affected, and will continue to affect, our daily lives, around the globe, for the foreseeable future. The answers and the solutions to this crisis will come from science. But the crisis affects science, too.It affects students, educators, and researchers; not just their day-to-day lives, social ties, and work routines, but also their ability to actively collaborate, convene in face-to-face meetings, attend academic conferences, teach and learn in an open university setting, pay a visit to the library, work overnight at the laboratory, and so on.But the thing is: science cannot stop. Scientific progress must go on. For each one of the challenges that scientists face in this time of crisis, there is, or there will be, a solution. We believe that the solution is not to be found in a single technological tool, product, framework, institution, funding agency, or company. It is the global cyber-infrastructure of scientific collaboration, built on scientific rigor, intellectual curiosity, and cooperation, that will enable science to advance in such difficult times. The power of scientific collaborationAs scientists, publishers, science communicators and technologists, we believe that: a. Science is the solution to the ongoing crisis. Now more than ever, reliance on the scientific method, rigor and clarity of scientific communication, transparency, reproducibility, and seamless sharing of all research data (including negative results), are fundamental to solving this health crisis and advancing human progress.b. Global collaboration and cooperation, beyond and above national and economic interests, is necessary not only at the scientific level, but also at the political and societal level. We're more interconnected and interdependent today than ever. And such interconnectedness extends to the ecological ecosystem in which we live. A crisis of such scale requires global solidarity, bipartisan political action, civic participation, and long-term thinking.
Blog image

Josh Nicholson

and 3 more

When you think of blogging you might think of a blog for cuddly cats, party parrots, the '90s, or celebrity gossip (we will not link to any of those, except cuddly cats). You probably do not think of ground breaking research, original ideas, and a powerful mechanism for research communication. And while you may be largely right, there is a world of blogging that is extremely important, a community that we wish to empower and serve with our latest feature release at Authorea, scientific blogging. In this post we wish to highlight how blogging can improve research, improve researchers career prospects, and why researchers should use a system designed for research blogging, like Authorea.Blogging as a place for correcting the scientific recordBlogging has proven to be integral towards maintaining and correcting the scientific literature. In fact, in many cases it is blogs and other forums where scientific fraud as well as common errors are first highlighted and ultimately corrected \cite{Yeo_2016}.  Blogging as a place for publishing "grey literature"Blogging allows researchers to post different types of content, ranging from journal clubs, peer reviews, single-figure observations, class essays, opinions, etc. There is a huge value to the research community to share "different" types of content, blogging allows researchers to easily do that. Blogging as a place of public outreachNearly all original peer-review publications are paywalled. Meaning it is difficult, if not impossible, for the majority of the world to legally access scientific research. Blogs, however, are nearly all completely open and accessible. More than that, they are also often times accessible in language. The discoveries and recommendations for which society invests substantial economic and human capital, should be directly disseminated by the people who really understand them, and not by the media and the political class, who often over-hype and in some case even distort the results. Blogging can be the long sought bridge between academia and the general public, something increasingly becoming required by grant agencies.Blogging as a way to advance your careerBlogs are by and large thought of as a distraction from communicating scientific ideas in a way that "counts." However, blogs can in many cases have a much larger impact on your career by providing you a forum to communicate with the world. Not all careers and hirers have such a limited way of thinking as tenure committees. Want to start blogging today? Create a group with us for free here. Want a custom design? Email us at 
Trinity test fireball 16ms
The power of the atomAt the beginning of the 20th century, major advancements in our understanding of fundamental physics led scientists to the discovery of nuclear energy. An unprecedented amount of power could in principle be released by combining (nuclear fusion) or breaking (nuclear fission) certain atomic species under special conditions. Nuclear fusion in particular was understood to be the process powering the immense luminosity of stars, including our Sun. Nuclear fusion is the light-bulb illuminating the vast living room of our Universe.Why so much energy?Burning fossil fuels releases chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the mild electromagnetic interactions between atoms in a compound. Nuclear energy, on the other hand, comes from the very central regions of the atom.  As the name suggests, it is stored in the nuclei, which are kept together by the strong force. The strong force is much stronger than all the other forces, including the electromagnetic one. As a result, nuclear fuel has an energy density about ten million times larger than chemical fuel. If your car was running on nuclear fuel, its gas mileage would be something like hundreds of millions of MPG. From light to darknessThe physics revolution that characterized the first three decades of the 20th century and led to the development of quantum mechanics and nuclear physics, was followed by the second World War. In 1942, the United States started a very ambitious project to build a nuclear weapon. The Manhattan Project, led by Robert Oppenheimer and gathering some of the best physicists on the planet, culminated with the successful Trinity experiment in 1945 (Fig.\ref{982837}). The first detonation of a nuclear weapon was the most shocking demonstration of the great power of science and the scientific method. Only less than a month later, two nuclear bombs were dropped over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in the end of WWII and the death of hundreds of thousands of people. The sheer destruction inflicted by the atomic bomb left an indelible mark on humankind's consciousness, formally starting a new era in the history of man. An era of greater responsibility. While no nuclear weapons have been purposely used in war ever since, more than 2000 nuclear tests have been performed after the Trinity, Hiroshima and Nagasaki explosions.