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%++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % Don't modify this section unless you know what you're doing! \documentclass[letterpaper,12pt]{article} \usepackage{tabularx} % extra features for tabular environment \usepackage{amsmath} % improve math presentation \usepackage{graphicx} % takes care of graphic including machinery \usepackage[margin=1in,letterpaper]{geometry} % decreases margins \usepackage{cite} % takes care of citations \usepackage[final]{hyperref} % adds hyper links inside the generated pdf file \hypersetup{ colorlinks=true, % false: boxed links; true: colored links linkcolor=blue, % color of internal links citecolor=blue, % color of links to bibliography filecolor=magenta, % color of file links urlcolor=blue } %++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ \begin{document} \title{Title of the Report} \author{A. Partner, B. Partner, and C. Partner} \date{\today} \maketitle \begin{abstract} In this experiment we studied a very important physical effect by measuring the dependence of a quantity $V$ of the quantity $X$ for two different sample temperatures. Our experimental measurements confirmed the quadratic dependence $V = kX^2$ predicted by Someone's first law. The value of the mystery parameter $k = 15.4\pm 0.5$~s was extracted from the fit. This value is not consistent with the theoretically predicted $k_{theory}=17.34$~s. We attribute this discrepancy to low efficiency of our $V$-detector. \end{abstract} \section{Introduction} The very important physical effect has applications to astronomy, nuclear physics, condensed matter, and more. \section{Theory} Here give a brief summary of the physical effect of interest and provide necessary equations. Here is how you insert an equation. According to references~\cite{melissinos,Cyr,Wiki} the dependence of interest is given by \begin{equation} \label{eq:aperp} % the label is used to reference the equation u(\lambda,T)=\frac{8\pi hc\lambda^{-5}}{e^{hc/\lambda kT}-1}, \end{equation} where T is temperature in Kelvin, c is the speed of light, etc. Don't forget to explain what each variable means the first time that you introduce it. \section{Procedures} Give a schematic of the experimental setup(s) used in the experiment (see figure~\ref{fig:samplesetup}). Give the description of abbreviations either in the figure caption or in the text. Write a description of what is going on. \begin{figure}[ht] % read manual to see what [ht] means and for other possible options \centering \includegraphics[width=0.8\columnwidth]{sr_setup} % note that in above figure file name, "sr_setup", % the file extension is missing. LaTeX is smart enough to find % apropriate one (i.e. pdf, png, etc.) % You can add this extention yourself as it seen below % both notations are correct but above has more flexibility %\includegraphics[width=1.0\columnwidth]{sr_setup.pdf} \caption{ \label{fig:samplesetup} % spaces are big no-no withing labels % things like fig: are optional in the label but it helps % to orient yourself when you have multiple figures, % equations and tables Every figure MUST have a caption. } \end{figure} Don't forget to list all important steps in your experimental procedure! Use active voice either in past or present through all the report and be consistent with it: The laser light comes from to ... and eventually arrived to the balanced photodiode as seen in the figure~\ref{fig:samplesetup}. Sentences in the past voice while correct are generally considered hard to read in large numbers. The laser light was directed to ..., wave plates were set to ... etc. \section{Analysis} In this section you will need to show your experimental results. Use tables and graphs when it is possible. Table~\ref{tbl:bins} is an example. \begin{table}[ht] \begin{center} \caption{Every table needs a caption.} \label{tbl:bins} % spaces are big no-no withing labels \begin{tabular}{|cc|} \hline \multicolumn{1}{|c}{$x$ (m)} & \multicolumn{1}{c|}{$V$ (V)} \\ \hline 0.0044151 & 0.0030871 \\ 0.0021633 & 0.0021343 \\ 0.0003600 & 0.0018642 \\ 0.0023831 & 0.0013287 \\ \hline \end{tabular} \end{center} \end{table} Analysis of equation~\ref{eq:aperp} shows ... Note: this section can be integrated with the previous one as long as you address the issue. Here explain how you determine uncertainties for different measured values. Suppose that in the experiment you make a series of measurements of a resistance of the wire $R$ for different applied voltages $V$, then you calculate the temperature from the resistance using a known equation and make a plot temperature vs. voltage squared. Again suppose that this dependence is expected to be linear~\cite{Cyr}, and the proportionality coefficient is extracted from the graph. Then what you need to explain is that for the resistance and the voltage the uncertainties are instrumental (since each measurements in done only once), and they are $\dots$. Then give an equation for calculating the uncertainty of the temperature from the resistance uncertainty. Finally explain how the uncertainty of the slop of the graph was found (computer fitting, graphical method, \emph{etc}.) If in the process of data analysis you found any noticeable systematic error(s), you have to explain them in this section of the report. It is also recommended to plot the data graphically to efficiently illustrate any points of discussion. For example, it is easy to conclude that the experiment and theory match each other rather well if you look at Fig.~\ref{fig:samplesetup} and Fig.~\ref{fig:exp_plots}. \begin{figure}[ht] \centering \includegraphics[width=0.5\columnwidth]{sr_squeezing_vs_detuning} % some figures do not need to be too wide \caption{ \label{fig:exp_plots} Every plot must have axes labeled. } \end{figure} \section{Conclusions} Here you briefly summarize your findings. %++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ % References section will be created automatically % with inclusion of "thebibliography" environment % as it shown below. See text starting with line % \begin{thebibliography}{99} % Note: with this approach it is YOUR responsibility to put them in order % of appearance. \begin{thebibliography}{99} \bibitem{melissinos} A.~C. Melissinos and J. Napolitano, \textit{Experiments in Modern Physics}, (Academic Press, New York, 2003). \bibitem{Cyr} N.\ Cyr, M.\ T$\hat{e}$tu, and M.\ Breton, % "All-optical microwave frequency standard: a proposal," IEEE Trans.\ Instrum.\ Meas.\ \textbf{42}, 640 (1993). \bibitem{Wiki} \emph{Expected value}, available at \texttt{http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expected\_value}. \end{thebibliography} \end{document}