The title should ideally be fewer than 120 characters, with a clear indication of the biological system under investigation (if appropriate), and should avoid abbreviations and unfamiliar acronyms if possible. Please note that two-part titles – e.g. “What goes up must come down: Oscillations in transcriptional networks” – are not permitted for research papers.Author names and affiliationsA complete list of authors and affiliations should be provided in the paper itself.AbstractThe abstract should be fewer than 150 words and should not contain subheadings. It should provide a clear, measured, and concise summary of the work. If the biological system (species names or broader taxonomic groups if appropriate) is not mentioned in the title, it must be included in the abstract.IntroductionWe encourage a clear and concise style of writing. Various writing guides are available, including Preparing a Manuscript for Submission to a Biomedical Journal (ICMJE) and The Elements of Style (New York:, 1999).ResultsDiscussionMaterials and MethodsAny "personal communications" relating to unpublished data should be incorporated within the main text, in the following format: (Author Initial(s) and Surname, personal communication, Month and Year). Authors should have permission from anyone named in this way and should be aware that a supporting letter will sometimes be requested.Within the Materials and Methods and/or figure legends, we encourage authors to provide complete information about their experiments, analyses, or data collection to ensure that readers can easily understand what was measured and analysed, and can accurately perform the relevant protocols.In cases where a new method within the submission would benefit from step-by-step protocols in addition to the methods described in the article, we would encourage authors to also consider submitting a detailed protocol to Bio-protocol.On first mention, please provide details of any manufacturers in the following format: company name, city, country (or state, if based in the United States).AcknowledgementsIndividuals who have contributed materially to the work, but do not satisfy the authorship criteria should be listed in the acknowledgements section. Authors should seek permission to include any individuals mentioned in the acknowledgements.Competing interestsAt this stage we request that the corresponding author provides a statement of financial and non-financial competing interests on behalf of all authors. Examples include paid employment or consultancy, stock ownership, patent applications, personal relationships with relevant individuals, and membership of an advisory board.Example reference \cite{Nicholson_2015}.