Recently, argued that the very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity (_p-p-v_) space as traced by lower density CO and higher density NH₃ gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high-contrast filament that can be used to map our Galaxy’s ”skeleton.“ Here, we present evidence for additional bones in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic mid-plane. We use CO, N₂H+, HCO+ and NH₃ radial velocity data to establish the three-dimensional location of the candidates in _p-p-v_ space. Of the ten candidates, six also: have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50: 1; run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in _p-p-v_ space; _and_ exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. Evidence suggests that these candidates are marking the locations of significant spiral features, with the bone called filament 5 (”BC_18.88-0.09") being a close analog to Nessie in the Northern Sky. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we seek to find more bones in future studies, ultimately to create a global-fit to the Galaxy’s spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features.
Recently, argued that a very long, very thin infrared dark cloud “Nessie” lies directly in the Galactic midplane and runs along the Scutum-Centaurus arm in position-position-velocity (p-p-v) space as traced by lower density CO and higher density NH₃ gas. Nessie was presented as the first “bone” of the Milky Way, an extraordinarily long, thin, high contrast filament that can be used to map our galaxy’s ”skeleton.“ We present the first evidence of additional bones in the Milky Way Galaxy, arguing that Nessie is not a curiosity but one of several filaments that could potentially trace Galactic structure. Our ten bone candidates are all long, filamentary, mid-infrared extinction features which lie parallel to, and no more than twenty parsecs from, the physical Galactic midplane. We use CO, N₂H+, HCO+ and NH₃ radial velocity data to establish the location of the candidates in p-p-v space. Of the ten filaments, six candidates also have a projected aspect ratio of ≥50: 1, run along, or extremely close to, the Scutum-Centaurus arm in p-p-v space, and exhibit no abrupt shifts in velocity. Evidence suggests that these candidates are Nessie-like filaments which mark the location of significant spiral features, with ”filament 5" replicating Nessie’s properties most strongly. As molecular spectral-line and extinction maps cover more of the sky at increasing resolution and sensitivity, we seek to find more bones in future studies, ultimately to create a global-fit to the Galaxy’s spiral arms by piecing together individual skeletal features.
Internet technologies make it easier and easier to share data globally, enabling a dramatic proliferation of online “citizen science” projects. One new project, called “oldAstronomy,” is in development by the Zooniverse team, based at Chicago’s Adler Planetarium, in collaboration with the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors program at Harvard. The goal of the project is to restore hidden metadata to images in published astronomical articles, some more than 100 years old, making the images useful to researchers. In this paper, I investigate a possible role for high school students in the oldAstronomy project. Using two focus groups, one at Milton School and one at Cambridge Ringe and Latin School, I investigate which aspects of participating in oldAstronomy would be of most interest: connections to real data? to real scientists? connecting to other students worldwide? viewing interesting images? researching a topic related to images encountered? It was explained to the focus group students, before they were surveyed, that requirements for their participation in oldAstronomy will include: digesting a scientific paper; summarizing results; and writing a summary that is understandable to the general public or participating in a more creative final project. Results show that students are very interested in working with real data and in the beauty and meaning of images. However, the results also show that students are, perhaps surprisingly, not interested in collaborating and communicating with other students, either in-person (as group work), or online. In response to the feedback from these students’ negative responses to group work, instead of a group final paper, students could benefit in a similar way with a reproduction of the peer review process. Additionally from the feedback of students, there was interest in an alternative form of final assessment. The results of our study suggest that instead of a standard write up, students can create: a 3D model of their object; a website about it; or a WorldWide Telescope tour.
It has recently been proposed (Goodman et al. 2014) that long, skinny, infrared dark clouds may trace out the densest features of the Milky Way, which include spiral arms, and possible inter-arm tendrils. The features are so long and skinny that they are almost certainly caused and maintained by a global gravitational potential, so they are not likely to be self-gravitating molecular clouds. These “Bones of the Milky Way” could be used to help piece together the structure of the Galaxy, shedding light on age-old questions, such as the number of spiral arms in our Galaxy and their locations. We have searched for and identified a handful of candidate Bones: long, filamentary infrared-dark clouds found in position-velocity space where our current model of the Galaxy predicts spiral arms should lie. Utilizing archival data, we have confirmed the location of these Bone candidates in the Galactic mid-plane and within 5 km/s of a spiral arm. We propose to use the IRAM 30-m to create the first ever high-resolution CO map (1mm) of a candidate “Bone of the Milky Way,” simultaneously with a suite of dense gas tracers at 3mm with IRAM. Capitalizing on IRAM’s unique ability to map CO over large areas at high angular resolution while simultaneously obtaining kinematic information about the dense gas, we will provide the first measure of structure and kinematics toward these unique Galactic structures. Our total time request is XX hours to map XX sq. arcminutes at 1mm (¹³CO and C¹⁸O 2-1) and 3mm (HCO+, HCN 1-0, etc.) toward our most promising Northern-hemisphere candidate Bone, “BC1.”
OCTOBER 9TH MEETING: QUESTIONS WE WANT TO ASK/TOPICS WE WANT TO EXPLORE - Graph frequency of papers per year on TOPCAT, using table Rob gave us - look into getting a census from the Director’s Office - use census to see if data is accurate and to see how many papers per person were written per year - We graphed the unique data- papers are only counted once in new table (used only bibcodes with unique values on TOPCAT) - found that in the older years, there was far less data than expected (this can be further substantiated by comparing the numbers on the graph to that in the census) - possible causes of imperfect data: - authors/scientists in earlier years did not list affiliation or had a different unreadable system for listing affiliation than used today or recognized by ADS - ADS was launched in 1992- This could account for the increase in data numbers? - HCO merged with SAO in 1975, this corresponds to data on graph! The increase in numbers around 1975 could actually be accurate- maybe increase in funding/influx of scientists/increase in projects after the formal relationship was established? - Want to possibly look at who did these authors collaborate with - graph in TOPCAT? By affiliation? - Should we restrict our data to just 2000-present because this seems to be the most accurate data on the graph?
We recommend that the AAS maintain its role as a leader in innovation in astronomy journals. We have identified a number of key areas for innovative expansion: the quality of article production, rich article features, data linking, and community interaction. Below we elaborate a vision of steps AAS should take in the near, medium, and long term. Examples and demonstrations of many of the points discussed here can be found in a document called “The ‘Paper’ of the Future”.
DEMOS - QUICK WWT OVERVIEW (DESKTOP AND HTML5 CLIENTS) - Alyssa - http://worldwidetelescope.org/Download - to download desktop client on Windows PC - http://worldwidetelescope.org/webclient - to run HTML5 client (development ongoing) - EXAMPLE OF HTML5 API application (The ADS All Sky Survey) - Alyssa - http://adsass.org/wwt/ - MOON PHASES (Earth-Sun-Moon) in WWT - Pat - Demo of NSF-funded Moon phases LESSON using WWT - http://wwtambassadors.org/wwt/WWT-MoonPhasesVizLab-details - Compilation of Moon resources - http://1drv.ms/1nErtDw - Sample existing online content promoted by middle school science textbook - http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/java/MoonPhase.html
ABSTRACT. ρ Ophiuchii is a group of five B-stars, embedded in a nearby molecular cloud: Ophiuchus, at a distance of ∼ 119 pc. A “bubble”-like structure is found in dust thermal emission around ρ Oph. The circular structure on the Hα map further indicates that this bubble is physically connected to the source at the center. The goal of this paper is to estimate the impact of feedback from these embedded B-stars on the molecular cloud, by comparing the energy associated with the material entrained in the bubble to the total turbulent energy of the cloud. In this paper, we combine data from the COMPLETE Survey, which includes ¹²CO (1-0) and ¹³CO (1-0) molecular line emission from FCRAO, an extinction map derived from 2MASS near-infrared data using the NICER algorithm, and far-infrared data from IRIS (60/100 μm) with data from the Herschel Science Archive (PACS 100/160 μm and SPIRE 250/350/500 μm). With the wealth of data tracing different components of the cloud, we try to determine the best strategy to derive physical properties and to estimate the energy budget in the shell and in the cloud. We also experiment with the hierarchical Bayesian-fitting technique introduced by in an effort to eliminate the bias in the derived column densities and/or temperatures induced by noise in the far-IR data. We find that the energy entrained in the bubble is ∼ 12 % of the total turbulent energy of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. This fraction is similar to the number give for the Perseus molecular cloud, and it suggests the non-negligible role of B-stars in driving the turbulence in clouds. We expect that a complete survey of “bubbles” in the Ophiuchus cloud will reveal the importance of B-star winds in molecular clouds.
We propose observations of L1689B in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud (~ 125 pc). The observations will cover the Class 0 core of L1689B and the filament in which the core sits. The goal is to trace the kinematics from the filament to the core. In order to achieve this goal, we propose to observe NH_3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) line emission. By combining data from the proposed VLA observation and the GBT data planned to be taken as part of our ongoing Green Bank Ammonia Survey (GAS; GBT/15A-430), the final maps will be sensitive to spatial scales from 6 arcmin (~ 0.26 pc) to 4 arcsec (~ 500 AU). The combined (VLA+GBT) set of data will have a spectral resolution of 0.1 km/s. The spectral and angular resolution will allow us to probe fragmentation and infall motion within the core. Meanwhile, the spatial coverage will allow us to trace the any flow motion from the filament onto the core, as has been recently found in molecular line observations (for example, 12CO 1-0 and 13CO 1-0) at larger scales. Being a Class 0 (very young) core sitting on a filamentary structure with large-scale velocity gradient, L1689B appears to be an ideal place to test the theory of star formation through accretion along/across filaments.