Oil fishing v4
We all have an album with old photos, a collection of newer digital images and in the future surely we will have many others in more innovative formats. When comparing old photos with recent ones, we can observe how people, society and the environment change over time. Something similar happens with our experiences. We have old images of crucial moments in our history that we store in our album of memories, and we dream of how we want the future to be. From here on, let's imagine that taking a photo at a certain moment in time is similar to collecting information of society and environment for a baseline study.       Years ago, we began to be distant spectators of the relationship between two critical economic activities: fisheries and oil extraction. These two activities take place in the Gulf of Mexico, which includes the coasts of the state of Tabasco. The interaction between both activities is certainly not a voluntary one, but somewhat circumstantial. This fortuitous relationship between fisheries and oil extraction was originated due to the natural wealth specifically concentrated in the Gulf of Mexico. Through the interaction between these two activities, certain concerns have arisen as to how we can maintain the sustainability of oil extraction and fisheries. To observe the evolution and interaction of such economic activities, we interviewed fishers to obtain valuable historical information stored in their memories and experiences. All fishers recognize that one of the main protagonists implicated in oil extraction has always been the Mexican government, under the name of Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). However, law reforms in 2013 allowed private companies to open new areas of exploitation in the Gulf of Mexico \cite{espinoza-tenorio2019}. The recollected images or historical information gave us an insight as to how different actors modified fisheries and oil extraction. On the other hand, the most recent information collected were similar to "panoramic digital photos" showing all actors that coexist on the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico. Historical and current information were like old and new "photos" taken with the highest possible resolution to observe in detail how both activities modify the landscape. From this information or "photos" we obtained, we could extract relevant data to improve the sustainability of both coastal activities. 
16 pat v3

Lucio Pat

and 3 more

The Mayan peasant families that inhabit the Petenes Biosphere Reserve (RBLP), combine both activities for self-sufficiency (i.e. milpa, family gardens, hunting) and commercial activities (i.e. beekeeping, livestock, handicrafts) which develop throughout the year. These are part of a Pluriactivity strategy based on the use of resources \citep{alarcn2008}. The main objective of this peasant strategy is to guarantee family self-sufficiency through the production of food from the milpa and secondly, to produce surplus food for sale. In this context, the meliponiculture, or breeding of the native stingless bee (ko'olel kaab bee, Melipona beecheii) in the RBLP, is primarily an activity that complements the income of families for the purchase of goods that they do not produce. Although the ko'olel kaab honey is highly valued in the market, the bee's breeding is at risk of disappearing in the Yucatan Peninsula \citep{colli2005}. The decline of the meliponiculture by the Mayan peasants began with the introduction of the European bee (Apis mellifera), at the beginning of the last century. Initially,  this species was introduced into the Yucatan peninsula by entrepreneurs for the commercial production of honey, and later adopted by the Mayan peasants. The substitution of the ko'olel kaab bee for the European one was due to the higher honey yield per hive of the latter species, even though each type of honey has different physical, chemical, microbiological, and organoleptic characteristics. Other factors associated with the decline of meliponiculture are: deforestation and forest fragmentation, the expansion of agriculture and livestock, the arrival of the African bee, the abandonment of the field due to lack of employment and income alternatives, and finally, the poor handling and reproduction of bees \citep{gonzlez2001}. 
14 english

Susana Ochoa-Gaona

and 7 more

Various plant communities developed along the Usumacinta River, adjacent streams and lagoons which are all considered part of the wetlands region. The wetlands are characterized for the presence of water, which plays a fundamental role in the development of the soil, and the ecological and structural functions of the system. The vegetation on the borders of the river and streams are known as riverine plant communities, whereas vegetation floating in the bodies of water is known as hydrophytic vegetation  \citep{j2006}. Three types of plant species in the wetlands could be distinguished: a) Strictly aquatic: plants that complete their life cycle either totally submerged, partially emerging, or floating on the surface; b) Subaquatic: plants that complete most of their life cycle on the border of the water, in water-saturated soils and can tolerate temporary dry seasons with minor humidity; and c) Drought tolerant: plants which complete most of their life cycle in dry areas, but support being partially submerged during rainy periods. The last category includes trees, bushes, climbers, and some palms \citep{2015}.The aquatic and border vegetation are physically and biologically connected and are of ecological importance, providing  complex habitats and resources for a high variety of other aquatic organisms  \citep{j2006}. The knowledge of the aquatic and subaquatic vegetation in Mexico is fragmentary. In particular for the Usumacinta River (the most important river of Mexico) where watershed has been only partially studied. In this study, we revised and created the knowledge available on the plant communities,  the riparian and aquatic plant species along the Usumacinta River watershed, and supplemented this knowledge with data collected in the study area. The data of floristic inventory of the Usumacinta river watershed was integrated with data provided by the National System of Information on Biodiversity of the National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of the Biodiversity (SNIB-CONABIO), literature, herbaria samples of UAC, ENCB, UJAT, Ecosur-SCLC and MEXU, and field data.We registered 212 families and 3,501 species; the families with most species were those of legumes (342), followed by orchids (295), the composite family (214), and grasses (195) \citep{delgado2018}. Such numbers of plant species is a good indication of the great diversity and floristic richness of aquatic and border plants in the Usumacinta River watershed. We registered 36 families and 148 aquatic and subaquatic plant species, numbers which confirm the importance of the Usumacinta watershed for these species groups.The borders of the Usumacinta River are threatened by human activity. The villages’ are planting ornamental and fruit trees, both native as introduced species. However, it is still possible to find original plant communities either in the lagoons, or along the Usumacinta river; for example, shrublands of muco (Dalbergia brownei or D. glabra) \citep{santiago2005}. The most common tree species registered are typical of riverine forest communities, such as: Bucida buceras (pucté), Inga vera (jinicuil), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto), Pithecellobium lanceolatum (tucuy) and Salix  humboldtiana (sauce), all of which are still present in border-forested fragments along the Usumacinta, San Pedro and Palisade rivers \citep{e1963} \cite{santiago2005}. The border vegetation near the coast is dominated by mangroves, such as Rhizophora mangle (red mangle), associated with Laguncularia racemosa (white mangle), Avicennia germinans (mangle prieto) and Conocarpus erectus (botoncillo) \cite{j2006}.We registered five species which had value and/or use: Annona glabra (anona) which is edible, Crescentia cujete (jícaro) which is ornamental, Guatteria anomala (palo de zope) which is used as food of turtles and parakeets, Sagittaria lancifolia (tule), and Vallisneria americana (sargazo) which is also known to be in the diet of turtles. This work highlights the importance of the riverine and aquatic vegetation for human communities, besides the service of food, nesting sites, refuge and rest for the regional fauna.This diversity of plants is integrated in plant communities which stabilizes the silt, oxygenates the water, provides refuge and material for nest sites, are habitats for different species of fauna, and provides  multiple ecosystem services which depend partly on the population that lives in the region \citep{a2010}. The villagers depend on the hydrological functions because fishing is an important source of economic income, and a local food source. Many of people that live in the watershed recognize the importance of the plants as a source of food for the aquatic fauna. As such, the management and conservation of the wetlands is of great importance.Diversidad de Plantas en Humedales de la Cuenca del río Usumacinta, México
Infografia completa authorea
Forest recovery in degraded landscapes is key to mitigating climate change. Reforestation efforts have been successful in temperate environments, partly due to the limited number of tree species found in those ecosystems (i.e.contrast is, Therefore, up to five species). In contrast, tropical forest reforestation is to date, practically impossible due to the huge biological diversity they harbour. The Maya forest in Campeche, Mexico is estimated to contain 300 to 600 tree species. Hence, each species has a low density within a highly diverse matrix.  Biological diversity of trees is maintained by a very complex network of interactions that scientists are starting to understand. One such interaction is related to how trees choose their partners. Yes, they do that. DNA progeny tests indicate that tropical trees are very promiscuous. In a single season, a Tabebuia rosea understand.  (maculís in Mayan) tree can mate with hundreds of other individuals. Due to the low density in population, pollen (and pollinators) must find a way to connect with other individuals diluted among many other species. Moreover, some individuals are more liked by the community. How do we determine this? DNA from certain individuals is more frequently found in seeds from several trees in a region. Knowing this, what would happen if this particularly "attractive" individual was eliminated? We have to consider these "attractive" individuals as a priority for conservation. However, the "attractive" trees do not necessarily fit the timber industry's parameters. Commercial foresters look for tall, straight trees to produce first-class table cuts. Classic silviculture procedures are totally anthropocentric, ignoring trees mating preferences. As a consequence, tree breeding is complicated as trees may not mate with man-selected individuals, lowering seed production. When a commercially selected plantation is established near a natural forest, the "attractive" individual in the landscape may be overwhelmed by the huge amounts of pollen produced by plantations, contributing to loss of genetic diversity. Fortunately, for the maculís in Campeche, Mexico, foresters seed source was as diverse as the natural populations. DNA from "attractive" individuals was found in the same frequency both in plantations and in natural populations \citep{m2016}. An educated propagation protocol for methods that avoid the risk of loosing "attractive" individuals (or their genes), must be based on the development of an Ideotype. This is an ideal imaginary tree which meets timber industry quality parameters, agronomic traits, and considers the species mating system. A tree that meets industrial, agronomic and biological expectations would, for instance be: straight, tall, fast-growing, pest-resistant, drought-tolerant (to face climate change), "attractive" for other trees, and so on. With knowledge of this desired ideotype, we can look into natural populations which are closer to the ideotype. Employing ideotype-based selection enables us to identify several elite maculis trees in the Maya forest \cite{Sol_s_Guill_n_2017}.  Seed or vegetative collection of materials must be performed to capture genetic diversity, representing at least 90% of the natural genetic diversity of close natural populations. Once the germplasm (i.e. a collection of seeds or parts of the trees) has been sampled, it could be propagated vegetatively. Once plants, we are able to use them for buds and cuttings. In the lab, this ability can be turbo-powered by techniques of tissue culture called micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis. Both tools use plant growth regulators which are added to a nutrient-rich medium, acting as artificial soil. These conditions are optimal and can change the inner programming of tree tissues, switching them to a highly proliferative path, resulting in multiple sprouts from a single piece of tissue. In our group, we focused on another tropical tree: Cedrela odorata (or cigar box Spanish red cedar), another native tree from Mesoamérica. Starting from twigs or seeds from adult trees that had been previously selected with the help of the ideotype, a process for the clonal propagation for this species was established \cite{Pe_a_Ram_rez_2010} \cite{Pe_a_Ram_rez_2010a}. With this tool, thousands or millions of trees can be produced, propagating not only trees but genetic diversity and clones that are able to fit industry quality parameters.  A surprising advantage of using tissue culture, is the ability to induce a rejuvenation process in the tissues. Remember Dolly the sheep? Dolly was a cloned sheep borns old, who carried markers in her DNA (i.e. epigenetic markers) that instruct the body to adopt the age of the donor sheep. Epigenetic markers in the DNA of trees also limit adult tree propagation. Frequently, it is hard to establish twigs that have come from mature trees as individual plants or derived trees, did not develop as a young tree; they remain "vintage". Epigenetic markers are naturally reset from adult to young at the moment of fecundation (i.e.this grown, proliferated tree native to Meso américa : cedar). with born "old", carrying instructed Often "adult" "young" Reserve the plants.  when pollination occurs for trees), but it is also feasible to reset the program employing plant tissue culture combined with grafting mature tissues over young ones. Subsequent rounds of grafting eliminate epigenetic markers linked to adult behaviour such as flowering, or lateral instead of vertical growth. By taking advantage of this technology, we were able to colones and propagate mature elite trees from the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, in the Maya forest, inducing juvenile traits on derived plantlets. We are currently focused on refining our protocols for scaled-up production of plants. When a planter ventures into silviculture, plant material is paramount as trees are a long-term investment. It is beneficial to have superior quality material derived (i.e. cloned) from strictly selected donor trees with juvenile traits, for fast growth and genetic diversity. This will contribute not only to the economic return, but increasing the resilience of plantations to adverse environmental conditions as a consequence of climate change. Successful plantations will satisfy the market demand, reducing the pressure on natural forests.