How to write Math in Authorea

Writing math for the web!

Authorea supports LaTeX, a powerful typesetting program that renders beautiful math notation. There are two ways to present a mathematical expression— inline or as an equation.

Inline mathematical expressions

Inline expressions occur in the middle of a sentence. To produce an inline expression, place the math expression between dollar signs ($ ). For example, typing $E=mc^2$ yields \(E=mc^2\).


Equations are mathematical expressions that are given their own line and are centered on the page. These are usually used for important equations that deserve to be showcased on their own line or for large equations that cannot fit inline. To produce an inline expression, place the mathematical expression between the symbols \[ and \] . Typing \[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}\] yields \[x=\frac{-b\pm\sqrt{b^2-4ac}}{2a}.\]


To get full-sized inline mathematical expressions use \displaystyle . Typing I want this $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n}$, not this $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n}$. yields: I want this \(\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}\), not this \(\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n}.\)

Symbols (in math mode)

The basics

description command output
addition + \(+\)
subtraction - \(-\)
plus or minus \pm \(\pm\)
multiplication (times) \times \(\times\)
multiplication (dot) \cdot \(\cdot\)
division symbol \div \(\div\)
division (slash) / \(/\)
infinity \infty \(\infty\)
dots 1,2,3,\ldots \(1,2,3,\ldots\)
dots 1+2+3+\cdots \(1+2+3+\cdots\)
fraction \frac{a}{b} \(\frac{a}{b}\)
square root \sqrt{x} \(\sqrt{x}\)
\(n\)th root \sqrt[n]{x} \(\sqrt[n]{x}\)
exponentiation a^b \(a^{b}\)
subscript a_b \(a_{b}\)
absolute value |x| \(|x|\)
natural log \ln(x) \(\ln(x)\)
logarithms \log_{a}b \(\log_{a}b\)
exponential function e^x=\exp(x) \(e^{x}=\exp(x)\)
degree \deg(f) \(\deg(f)\)
circle plus \oplus \(\oplus\)
circle times \otimes \(\otimes\)
equal = \(=\)
not equal \ne \(\ne\)
less than < \(<\)
less than or equal to \le \(\le\)
greater than or equal to \ge \(\ge\)
approximately equal to \approx \(\approx\)


description command output
maps to \to \(\to\)
composition \circ \(\circ\)

Greek and Hebrew letters

command output command output
\alpha \(\alpha\) \tau \(\tau\)
\beta \(\beta\) \theta \(\theta\)
\chi \(\chi\) \upsilon \(\upsilon\)
\delta \(\delta\) \xi \(\xi\)
\epsilon \(\epsilon\) \zeta \(\zeta\)
\varepsilon \(\varepsilon\) \Delta \(\Delta\)
\eta \(\eta\) \Gamma \(\Gamma\)
\gamma \(\gamma\) \Lambda \(\Lambda\)
\iota \(\iota\) \Omega \(\Omega\)
\kappa \(\kappa\) \Phi \(\Phi\)
\lambda \(\lambda\) \Pi \(\Pi\)
\mu \(\mu\) \Psi \(\Psi\)
\nu \(\nu\) \Sigma \(\Sigma\)
\omega \(\omega\) \Theta \(\Theta\)
\phi \(\phi\) \Upsilon \(\Upsilon\)
\varphi \(\varphi\) \Xi \(\Xi\)
\pi \(\pi\) \aleph \(\aleph\)
\psi \(\psi\) \beth \(\beth\)
\rho \(\rho\) \daleth \(\daleth\)
\sigma \(\sigma\) \gimel \(\gimel\)


description command output
vector \vec{v} \(\vec{v}\)
vector \mathbf{v} \(\mathbf{v}\)
norm ||\vec{v}|| \(||\vec{v}||\)