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  • Visualization of Power System Data and Structure

    Abstract

    Power system visualization is an unexplored technique to enlighten the salient features of power system by visualizing in relation to electrical parameter. The conventional one-line diagrams fails in various ways; buses are positioned arbitrarily which does not reflect electrically meaningful network layout of power system, power system parameters like power flow, voltage magnitude & angle is shown in numeric values which is too much information to make quick decisions to save power system to collapse in case of fault or disturbance and single line diagram is a static display whereas power system is an ever-fluctuating dynamic system of electrical and mechanical components. This paper discusses force directed layout algorithm to explore the representation of small to large power system’s data and structure to create situational awareness by a novel visualization.

    Index Terms- Data visualization, power system, force directed layout algorithm

    Introduction

    Visualization

    Edward Tufte’s work in visualization laid down the basic principles of effective visualization as foundation to visual designs [1]. The visuals rules were summarized and presented in mid 90s which showed three effective visual representation rules i.e. (i) Natural encoding of information; (ii) Task specific graphics; (iii) No gratuitous graphics [2]. Also, T. Norrentrander’s research shows result that the sight is the fastest way of receiving data[3], and human can decipher intuitive color coding much faster than reading numeric data. So, the visualization technique used in any system should be cognitive i.e., they should be recognized and understood by the operators clearly and accurately for that we need to apply visualization principles to power system structure which can create more electrically meaningful visualization compared to one-line diagram.

    Power System Visualization

    Edward Tufte’s work in visualization laid down the basic principles of effective visualization as foundation to visual designs [1]. The visuals rules were summarized and presented in mid 90s which showed three effective visual representation rules i.e. (i) Natural encoding of information; (ii) Task specific graphics; (iii) No gratuitous graphics [2]. Also, T. Norrentrander’s research shows result that the sight is the fastest way of receiving data[3], and human can decipher intuitive color coding much faster than reading numeric data. So, the visualization technique used in any system should be cognitive i.e., they should be recognized and understood by the operators clearly and accurately for that we need to apply visualization principles to power system structure which can create more electrically meaningful visualization compared to one-line diagram.

    Gaps In Previous Work

    Foregoing work shows positions of buses which are arbitrary and exhibit no electrically meaningful network visualization with large amount of information projected as shown in Fig. 1 which is not relevant to quickly react to the situation of failure or disturbance. Human perception is still not embedded into one line diagrams and visualization of electrical networks without considering human perception of colors, sizes and shapes [10] may cause ineffective decision making and leads to confusion. Also, in previous works of one-line diagram visualization fails to define the importance of electrically important component e.g. big loads or generation or electrically close proximity of different nodes e.g. low impedance between two nodes. To overcome and fill the gaps, we used electrical parameter to visualize a power system network whose methodology will be discussed in section 2.

    Motivation

    Our motivation of force directed layout algorithm for visualization of electrical network is because of above mentioned gaps explained in section C and a research shows that the force directed algorithm based graph layout provides high readability compared to other layout structure [11]. Also, Power system grids like North American electric grid reliability is being questioned and researched extensively[12]. The author of [13] used a barabasi –albert network model to calculate of reliability of electric transmission system using power system reliability index. The author of [14] discusses about the parameters of structural vulnerability of North American Power Grid which shows the accurate and relevant structural visualization is of epitome importance to have secured operation. Few of the papers discusses about the impact of catastrophic events and disasters[15] [16] on power grid which raises the concern to empower electrical operator with such visualization to make swift and precise resolution for an issue, saving system from blackout and failure.

    Paper Structure

    Our motivation of force directed layout algorithm for visualization of electrical network is because of above mentioned gaps explained in section C and a research shows that the force directed algorithm based graph layout provides high readability compared to other layout structure [11]. Also, Power system grids like North American electric grid reliability is being questioned and researched extensively[12]. The author of [13] used a barabasi –albert network model to calculate of reliability of electric transmission system using power system reliability index. The author of [14] discusses about the parameters of structural vulnerability of North American Power Grid which shows the accurate and relevant structural visualization is of epitome importance to have secured operation. Few of the papers discusses about the impact of catastrophic events and disasters[15] [16] on power grid which raises the concern to empower electrical operator with such visualization to make swift and precise resolution for an issue, saving system from blackout and failure.

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