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SUBMISSION OF PAPERS TO NIPS 2016 THERE IS A NEW STYLE FILE FOR PAPERS SUBMITTED IN 2016! NIPS requires electronic submissions. The electronic submission site is https://cmt.research.microsoft.com/NIPS2016/ Please read carefully the instructions below and follow them faithfully. Style Papers to be submitted to NIPS 2016 must be prepared according to the instructions presented here. Papers may only be up to eight pages long, including figures. Since 2009 an additional ninth page _containing only acknowledgments and/or cited references_ is allowed. Papers that exceed nine pages will not be reviewed, or in any other way considered for presentation at the conference. The margins in 2016 are the same as since 2007, which allow for ∼15% more words in the paper compared to earlier years. Authors are required to use the NIPS LaTeX style files obtainable at the NIPS website as indicated below. Please make sure you use the current files and not previous versions. Tweaking the style files may be grounds for rejection. Retrieval of style files The style files for NIPS and other conference information are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.nips.cc/ The file nips_2016.pdf contains these instructions and illustrates the various formatting requirements your NIPS paper must satisfy. The only supported style file for NIPS 2016 is nips_2016.sty, rewritten for . PREVIOUS STYLE FILES FOR LATEX 2.09, MICROSOFT WORD, AND RTF ARE NO LONGER SUPPORTED! The new LaTeX style file contains two optional arguments: final, which creates a camera-ready copy, and nonatbib, which will not load the natbib package for you in case of package clash. At submission time, please omit the final option. This will anonymize your submission and add line numbers to aid review. Please do _not_ refer to these line numbers in your paper as they will be removed during generation of camera-ready copies. The file nips_2016.tex may be used as a “shell” for writing your paper. All you have to do is replace the author, title, abstract, and text of the paper with your own. The formatting instructions contained in these style files are summarized in Sections [gen_inst], [headings], and [others] below. GENERAL FORMATTING INSTRUCTIONS The text must be confined within a rectangle 5.5 inches (33 picas) wide and 9 inches (54 picas) long. The left margin is 1.5 inch (9 picas). Use 10 point type with a vertical spacing (leading) of 11 points. Times New Roman is the preferred typeface throughout, and will be selected for you by default. Paragraphs are separated by  line space (5.5 points), with no indentation. The paper title should be 17 point, initial caps/lower case, bold, centered between two horizontal rules. The top rule should be 4 points thick and the bottom rule should be 1 point thick. Allow  inch space above and below the title to rules. All pages should start at 1 inch (6 picas) from the top of the page. For the final version, authors’ names are set in boldface, and each name is centered above the corresponding address. The lead author’s name is to be listed first (left-most), and the co-authors’ names (if different address) are set to follow. If there is only one co-author, list both author and co-author side by side. Please pay special attention to the instructions in Section [others] regarding figures, tables, acknowledgments, and references. HEADINGS: FIRST LEVEL All headings should be lower case (except for first word and proper nouns), flush left, and bold. First-level headings should be in 12-point type. Headings: second level Second-level headings should be in 10-point type. Headings: third level Third-level headings should be in 10-point type. Paragraphs There is also a \paragraph command available, which sets the heading in bold, flush left, and inline with the text, with the heading followed by 1em of space. CITATIONS, FIGURES, TABLES, REFERENCES These instructions apply to everyone. Citations within the text The natbib package will be loaded for you by default. Citations may be author/year or numeric, as long as you maintain internal consistency. As to the format of the references themselves, any style is acceptable as long as it is used consistently. The documentation for natbib may be found at http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/latex/contrib/natbib/natnotes.pdf Of note is the command \citet, which produces citations appropriate for use in inline text. For example, investigated\dots produces Hasselmo, et al. (1995) investigated… If you wish to load the natbib package with options, you may add the following before loading the nips_2016 package: {natbib} If natbib clashes with another package you load, you can add the optional argument nonatbib when loading the style file: \usepackage[nonatbib]{nips_2016} As submission is double blind, refer to your own published work in the third person. That is, use “In the previous work of Jones et al. [4],” not “In our previous work [4].” If you cite your other papers that are not widely available (e.g., a journal paper under review), use anonymous author names in the citation, e.g., an author of the form “A. Anonymous.” Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. If you do require a footnote, indicate footnotes with a number[1] in the text. Place the footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Precede the footnote with a horizontal rule of 2 inches (12 picas). Note that footnotes are properly typeset _after_ punctuation marks.[2] Figures All artwork must be neat, clean, and legible. Lines should be dark enough for purposes of reproduction. The figure number and caption always appear after the figure. Place one line space before the figure caption and one line space after the figure. The figure caption should be lower case (except for first word and proper nouns); figures are numbered consecutively. You may use color figures. However, it is best for the figure captions and the paper body to be legible if the paper is printed in either black/white or in color. Tables All tables must be centered, neat, clean and legible. The table number and title always appear before the table. See Table [sample-table]. Place one line space before the table title, one line space after the table title, and one line space after the table. The table title must be lower case (except for first word and proper nouns); tables are numbered consecutively. Note that publication-quality tables _do not contain vertical rules._ We strongly suggest the use of the booktabs package, which allows for typesetting high-quality, professional tables: https://www.ctan.org/pkg/booktabs This package was used to typeset Table [sample-table]. lll Name & Description & Size (μm) Dendrite & Input terminal & ∼100 Axon & Output terminal & ∼10 Soma & Cell body & up to 10⁶ FINAL INSTRUCTIONS Do not change any aspects of the formatting parameters in the style files. In particular, do not modify the width or length of the rectangle the text should fit into, and do not change font sizes (except perhaps in the REFERENCES section; see below). Please note that pages should be numbered. PREPARING PDF FILES Please prepare submission files with paper size “US Letter,” and not, for example, “A4.” Fonts were the main cause of problems in the past years. Your PDF file must only contain Type 1 or Embedded TrueType fonts. Here are a few instructions to achieve this. - You should directly generate PDF files using pdflatex. - You can check which fonts a PDF files uses. In Acrobat Reader, select the menu Files>Document Properties>Fonts and select Show All Fonts. You can also use the program pdffonts which comes with xpdf and is available out-of-the-box on most Linux machines. - The IEEE has recommendations for generating PDF files whose fonts are also acceptable for NIPS. Please see http://www.emfield.org/icuwb2010/downloads/IEEE-PDF-SpecV32.pdf - xfig “patterned” shapes are implemented with bitmap fonts. Use “solid” shapes instead. - The \bbold package almost always uses bitmap fonts. You should use the equivalent AMS Fonts: followed by, e.g., , , or for ℝ, ℕ or ℂ. You can also use the following workaround for reals, natural and complex: {I\!\!R} %real numbers {I\!\!N} %natural numbers {I\!\!\!\!C} %complex numbers Note that amsfonts is automatically loaded by the amssymb package. If your file contains type 3 fonts or non embedded TrueType fonts, we will ask you to fix it. Margins in LaTeX Most of the margin problems come from figures positioned by hand using \special or other commands. We suggest using the command \includegraphics from the graphicx package. Always specify the figure width as a multiple of the line width as in the example below: \usepackage[pdftex]{graphicx} ... \includegraphics[width=0.8\linewidth]{myfile.pdf} See Section 4.4 in the graphics bundle documentation (http://mirrors.ctan.org/macros/latex/required/graphics/grfguide.pdf) A number of width problems arise when LaTeX cannot properly hyphenate a line. Please give LaTeX hyphenation hints using the \- command when necessary. Acknowledgments Use unnumbered third level headings for the acknowledgments. All acknowledgments go at the end of the paper. Do not include acknowledgments in the anonymized submission, only in the final paper. REFERENCES References follow the acknowledgments. Use unnumbered first-level heading for the references. Any choice of citation style is acceptable as long as you are consistent. It is permissible to reduce the font size to small (9 point) when listing the references. REMEMBER THAT YOU CAN USE A NINTH PAGE AS LONG AS IT CONTAINS _ONLY_ CITED REFERENCES. [1] Alexander, J.A. & Mozer, M.C. (1995) Template-based algorithms for connectionist rule extraction. In G. Tesauro, D.S. Touretzky and T.K. Leen (eds.), _Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 7_, pp. 609–616. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [2] Bower, J.M. & Beeman, D. (1995) _The Book of GENESIS: Exploring Realistic Neural Models with the GEneral NEural SImulation System._ New York: TELOS/Springer–Verlag. [3] Hasselmo, M.E., Schnell, E. & Barkai, E. (1995) Dynamics of learning and recall at excitatory recurrent synapses and cholinergic modulation in rat hippocampal region CA3. _Journal of Neuroscience_ 15(7):5249-5262. [1] Sample of the first footnote. [2] As in this example.