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                      4. Qu’est-ce que le  Black Carbon (BC) ?       Le BC  est une particule fine produite lors de la combustion de carburant  par les navires. Cette  situation est amplifiée en Arctique pour plusieurs raisons :•Les bateaux  utilisent des carburants de mauvaise qualité car  moins chers,  mais dont  la combustion produit plus de black carbon    •Les  bateaux ne sont en général pas adaptés aux conditions arctiques,  augmentant ainsi leur consommation de carburant    •On prédit  que les émissions de BC dans l'Arctique vont quintupler d'ici 2050                                5. Effet du BC sur le climatLorsque  le black  carbon se  dépose sur la glace,  il crée une  légère couche noire. Ainsi, cette pellicule sombre augmente  l’indice d’absorption de la glace et réduit l'albédo, ce  qui signifie que la  glace capte plus de chaleur et donc se réchauffe plus  rapidement. On constate ainsi une accélération de la fonte de la  glace...............................................................................http://library.arcticportal.org/1400/1/AMSA_2009_Report_2nd_print.pdf       Recommended citation: Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. Arctic Council, April 2009, second printing- "Black carbon emissions from ships operating in the Arctic may have regional impacts by accelerating ice melt."- "Black carbon has been proven to have significant climate forcing effects, in addition to its effects on snow and ice albedo, accelerating the retreat of Arctic sea ice."- "The region-specific effects of black carbon indicate that even small amounts could have a potentially disproportionate impact on ice melt and warming in the region."- "The black carbon emitted from shipping in the Arctic could have significant regional impacts by accelerating ice melt."- "The introduction and spread of alien invasive species is a serious problem that has ecological, economic, health and environmental impacts, including the loss of native biological diversity worldwide. (...) The risk of introduction of invasive species will increase as shipping volume increases in this region."- "From an environmental point of view, Arctic shipping poses a threat to the region’s unique ecosystems. This threat can be effectively mitigated through careful planning and effective regulation in areas of high risk."- "Release of oil into the Arctic marine environment, either through accidental release, or illegal discharge, is the most significant threat from shipping activity."http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v1/n4/abs/ngeo156.html- "The deposition of black carbon darkens snow and ice surfaces, which can contribute to melting, in particular of Arctic sea ice."-titre: "wwf arctic_shipping_best_practices_report"http://awsassets.wwf.ca/downloads/wwf_arctic_shipping_best_practices_report_2012_1.pdf  climat impact: black carbon reduces albedo: (Hardley and Kirchstetter 2012)http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v2/n6/full/nclimate1433.htmlDocument BC : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003JD003697/full Site spécialisé dans l'arctique : http://www.access-eu.org/en/arctic_gouvernance.htmlCambridge