03 - Semantic Networks

Semantic networks are a knowledge representation scheme.

This lesson will cover the following topics:

• Knowlege representations
• Semantic networks
• Problem-solving with semantic networks
• Represent & Reason

Representation

In each knowledge representation, there is a language, and that language has a vocabulary. In addition, the representation contains some content (or knowledge).

Example: Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

$$F = ma$$ Force is equal to mass times acceleration

Introduction to Semantic Networks

How to represent Raven’s Progressive Matrices using a semantic network. State A, and state B.

1. Label all objects (x is a circle, y is the diamond, z is the black dot), and reference them as nodes
2. Represent the relationships between nodes, in both states (frames), both A and B.
3. Represent the transformation between the nodes between states, A and B.

Structure of Semantic Networks

• 1. Lexically: nodes
• 3. Semantically: application-specific labels

Characteristics of Good Representations

• Make relationships explicit
• exposese natural contraints
• bring objects and relations together
• exclude extraneous details
• transparent, concise, complete, fast, computable

Guards and Prisoners Problem

Description

• Three guard and three prisoners must cross river.
• Boat may take only one or two people at a time.
• Prisoners may never outnumber guards on either time (thought prisoner may be alone on either coast).

Modeling using Semantic Nework

Lexicon: Consider each node to be a unique state, represented by: - number of prisoners and guards on left side - number of prisoners and guards on right side - side that boat is on.

Structure:

Semantic:

 i 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 trans: init:< 2p to R:> p to L:< 2p to R:> p to L:< 2g to R:> g.p to L:< 2g to R:> p to L:< 2p to R:> p to L:< 2p to R:< $$g_i$$ 3, 0 3, 0 3, 0 3, 0 3, 0 1, 2 2, 1 0, 3 0, 3 0, 3 0, 3 0, 3 $$p_i$$ 3, 0 1, 2 2, 1 0, 3 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 3, 0 1, 2 2, 0 0, 3