Planes toy models

Left panel: Number of co-rotating satellite pairs (green line) and counter-rotating satellite pairs (orange line) with \(\alpha {<}35^{\circ}\) as a function of \(\alpha\). Right panel: Fraction of satellite pairs that are co-rotating as a function of \(\alpha\). For hosts with two satellites, there is a significant excess of co-rotating pairs over counter-rotating pairs at small \(\alpha\) (i.e. in satellites that are nearly diametrically opposed to each other). The suggests the possibile presence of coherently rotating planar satellite structures.


Definition of the opening angle between satellite pairs, \(\alpha\). Each unique satellite pair (here, S1 and S2) has a uniquely defined \(\alpha\).