Annotazione 2020 02 24 155243 group of topics 94paper1

Enrico De Angelis

and 7 more

Abstract (and general evaluation comments)to be filled at theend of the courseForewordThe following paragraphs are the results of the workshop "HOW TO SEARCH (AND TO FIND)YOUR SCIENTIFIC REFERENCES AND TO REALIZE A BIBLIOGRAPHY", the main activity developed in the Module 3 "Digital (Scientific) Literature, Bibliographies and Bibliometrics"  of the course 055402 - COMPLEMENTARY DOCTORAL SKILLS (prof. E.De Angelis - prof. P.Biscari) of the PhD School, in 2019/20 (see here for the official syllabus page). This module aims to introduce the PhD Students to the use of Digital Scientific Literature and to train them in performing a systematic search in the many clusters available, analyzing its results on a quantitative basis and organize a bibliographical database.The students are required (and will be evaluated on this basis) to:  set their digital identities as researchersacquire the available tools for searching existing references about their Research questionStart a deep understanding of their research field and their research topic, set up a literature reviews.Literature reviewsIR Photovoltaic Technologies (Marangi Fabio - PhD-PHYS)The objective of the workshop is to assess the effectiveness of the use of keywords and of their combinations in the research of papers related to the field of interest. On all the platforms considered for the research of the papers, the use of just one of the keywords  (“hot-electron”)  leads to a huge number of results. The papers can be divided into very specific papers, basic studies papers and more generic ones. The number of results can be significantly reduced by combining more keywords. The use of two keywords (“hot-electron” AND “extraction”) decreases the number of output papers in WOS to 145. The mixing of the keywords excludes the papers referring to basic studies (mostly physical phenomena) and generic papers on the existence of hot-electrons in a number of materials. Knowing various materials in which it is possible to identify this type of electrons and not being, in this case, interested in the physical processes that lead to their formation it is possible to restrict the research again in the class of materials in which I am interested by adding a new keyword (“hot-electron” AND “extraction” AND "semiconductor”) . This reduces the number of papers to a third (54).The last step corresponds to focusing the research on the class of materials able to harvest the part of solar spectrum of interest for the final application (“hot-electron” AND “extraction” AND "semiconductor” AND “infrared”) . This results in a small number of relevant papers (6). Starting from those, it is possible to expand the research by taking into account their bibliographies.The other tools for literature research, namely Scopus, Semantic Scholar and Google scholar have the same trend in the reduction of the number of papers, but starting from a greater amount of them. Literature review on in vitro models of developing bone and related diseases (Maria Vittoria Colombo - PhDBio) In vitro bone models are used in tissue engineering to study the physiology of tissue microenvironment and more in detail to replicate specific bone pathologies as cancer metastasis. With the aim of delineating mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases, numerous studies have been carried out to identify the triggers of bone invasion by cancer cells. One of the major limitations of these studies is the lack of models of bone-cancer that can strictly mimic all the biological processes occurring in vivo, not allowing a correct understanding of the pathology. The aim of this review is to summarize the status of advanced 3D in vitro models excluding two dimensional cultures and in vivo animal models.Starting from Web of Science (WOS), two different searches were combined: “in vitro model” and “bone”, founding 1440 papers. Then, the main 10 categories interested in “in vitro bone models” were identified and selected for the research field as cell biology, oncology and cell tissue engineering (379 papers). Hence, the research was restricted from the papers of the last 5 years (2015-2020) to see the more trending topics as which type of materials to develop the model or for which application are used, like study of a particular pathology (115 papers). Among these last list of 115 papers, one review (Owen, R. & Reilly, G. C. In vitro Models of Bone Remodelling and Associated Disorders. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 6, (2018)) appeared to be very interesting for the scope of this current paper, discarding the previous search that was not too focused to the aim of the review. Starting from its references (n=185), more papers were added to the list adding more specific WOS searches. In detail, the string TOPIC: (”bone model” AND (”sarcoma” OR ”tumor” OR ”cancer” OR ”developing” OR ”remodelling”)) was searched, allowing to add 58 more papers to the list. As done for the previous search, topic (fig. 1) and categories (figure 2) were analyzed.
Sun paths

Enrico De Angelis

and 1 more

Enrico De Angelis

and 3 more

ProposalThis paragraph is a proposal, not yet an abstract. But since this document is an open one, I state some few information.During the final workshop of the Course Scientific Writings (2017), Publishing in peer-reviewed journals, given and managed by Richard Lorch, the students analyzed a series of journals. They made a short personal report and a group work (six groups), that has been presented to and discussed by all the participants to the course. The task proposed to the Collaborator to this document is what they need to be evaluated and to get the final grade and is the following:to re-elaborate the discussion made by each participant and group, identifying a flexible characteristics of a so-called "scientific journal" and a way to classify themto reach a reasonable classification of all the examined journal, producing a list of them with a short description and classificationClassification of papers and journals charactersLet me add, here, my personal notes from the workshopAUTHORSHIP (who writes journals? Mainly academics)AUDIENCE - Professional/academic/stakeholder audience (Who does read those journals? That is the question!)TYPOLOGYResearch papersLiterature review papersPolicy papers (?)Case-study papersMethodological papers... TOPICS DEALT WITH:Monodisciplinary specialist journalsTrans/Multidisciplinary-specialist with specific, technical topicsTrans/Multidisciplinary-general without a specific topic (multiple or wide topic)Broad thinking??...With special issueGEOGRAPHYNational/International audienceGeography of authorsGeography author’s institution and of the members of the editorial boardGeography of author’s institutionGeography of the members of the editorial boardSTRUCTURE of the papersTitleAbstractIntroductionLiterature review? … Discussion? Literature reviewMethodologyDiscussionConclusions METHODOLOGYQualitative/quantitative research methodologyClear about the adopted methodology? Or just talking about results.OWNER (scientific societies or others) REVIEW MODEblind reviewdouble blind review...DIMENSIONSNumber of pageslength of certain paragraphFUNDING (Funding of published research what about funding of the editor?)polimi courses about scientific writingCOMMUNICATING SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (PhD-School, A.Paganoni)SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH (PhD-School, P.Biscari, T.J.Sluckin)RESEARCH SKILLS (PhD-School, D.Sciuto)ACADEMIC PUBLISHING (Phd-DIG, L.Grilli, A.Brun, I.Lapsley)SCIENTIFIC AND SCHOLARLY WRITING (PhD-School-2016/17, L.Guerrini, K.S.Friedman).
Historic buildings in cairo city

Ehsan Raslan

and 2 more

ABSTRACTThe increasing  of energy demands has affected the historic architectural heritage in different climate zones. Unprecedented heat waves have increased climate temperature, in particular, in hot climate zones such as Egypt. In Egypt, Only the residential sector consumes 43.4% of total electricity consumption. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning) systems are used to reach acceptable thermal comfort levels in the residential & public buildings, in the new buildings as well as in the existing ones. In case of the historical buildings in Egypt law regulations \cite{URL_IDc}, there are no limits or discussion about the use of HVAC systems to achieve the required thermal comfort level.Thus, to  reach an acceptable thermal comfort level, the historical buildings in Cairo  which already contain natural ventilation system, were transformed by users to  adapt the modern thermal comfort requirements and thermal comfort strategies and technologies. Despite many transformations  were done, not only those historic buildings were negatively transformed, but  also the users couldn’t achieve the requested thermal comfort levels. These informal transformations affected the conservation of the architectural heritage.This  positioning paper tackles with the concept and importance of the control and  adjustment of the comfort levels in the historical buildings. The positioning  paper provides an indication about the state of art in the contemporary peer  academic researches which is essential to realise the research gaps in this  field. Moreover, it suggests methodology to be applied in case of measuring the  thermal comfort in the historical houses in Cairo.The positioning  paper is part of the PhD research that aims at discussing how to achieve balance  between thermal comfort and conservation requirements in the historic houses in hot arid zones. Especially historical houses from 17th till 19th centuries in Cairo  (Ottoman period) are discussed as examples. Taking into consideration that the original natural  ventilation system should be achieved as a part of the original architectural  concept of these houses in Cairo.The result is  expected to be achieved through a systematic control of the thermal  comfort level in the historical Ottoman houses in Cairo, in order to create  guidelines to restore other Ottoman historical houses in Cairo or in other hot  arid zones. In other words, PhD itself will act as an accurate method to control the thermal comfort level in the historical houses in hot arid zones without damaging the cultural heritage values. This concept is discussed and applied in the historical buildings in cold climate zones but not in hot climate zones. Furthermore, this concept should be spread in other climate zones to maintain the cultural heritage properties.Quantitative methodology approach is used in order to evaluate the natural  ventilation systems, clarify the thermal comfort level and to verify the  necessity of additional system in these historical houses to fulfil the recent  thermal comfort requirements. KeywordsThermal comfort; Building Performance; Natural  ventilation system; Climate conditions; Hot Arid Zone; Conservation practices; Architectural  heritage; Historical buildings; Ottoman houses; Cairene housesContents   IntroductionResearch questionConceptual Framework        3.1. Conservation issues        3.2. Building energy performance issues & thermal comfort requirements        3.3. Discussion about the relationship between the conservation and thermal  comfort issues in historic buildings4. Research Problems of the PhD topic5. State of art        5.1. Thermal comfort and historic buildings in different climate zones        5.2. The Ottoman houses (heritage and Society)        5.3. Discussion about the recent  researches about the used methodologies of measuring the thermal comfort in  historic houses        5.4. Conclusions: the knowledge gap6. Research methodology of the PhD (General and Detailed)        6.1. General methodology for the PhD topic        6.2. Detailed methodology for the case studies7. Expected results8. Research importance9. Research progress and current stateReferencesINTRODUCTIONCultural heritage deals with senses, memories, and physical values. It includes movable and immovable things that represent significant value for a society\cite{URL_IDa}. So, it is an important source of information about the  past. Historic buildings are part of tangible cultural heritage and they, particularly, give us insight about the way of an ancient society thinking. These buildings were designed to involve community beliefs, climate conditions requirements, and economic aspects.Nowadays, the historical buildings constitute a large portion of the built environment in different countries. First example in Egypt, historical buildings include monuments and buildings with peculiar architectural, historic, or urban value.- The monuments are registered according to law no. 117 of 1983 by the Ministry of Antiquities in Egypt (SCA) and they were built before 100 years \cite{URL_IDc}.- Meanwhile, buildings with peculiar architectural, historic, or urban value are registered according to law 144 of 2006 by Ministry of Culture (MoC) with National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH). The law no. 144/2006 does not mention to the age of these buildings. However, the registered buildings according to that law were built till before 1930 \cite{URL_ID}.In Cairo, the historical buildings in Historic Cairo area constitute around 16.50 %  of the built environment of Cairo city\cite{URL_IDd}, Ref. to figure no. (1) & (2). 
Fig1

Annalucia D'Erchia

and 1 more

A renewed sensibility towards the ancient has brought to the growth, accelerated in the last forty years, of the debate on the future of the past.   A prototype, a theoretical model, before to be practical, of an exhibition system imagined for the place of archaeology, through the use of archeological yard - already experienced with convincing results in restoration - and the protection during the digging activity is the possible translation of a dialogue between the archaeology, the architecture and the engineering.  The unexpected and sudden variations, which archeological research is susceptible, have led to the identification, in the completed excavation of a Roman Domus in Aquileia, Fondo ex Cossar, of a possible chance to retrace ex-post a project hypothesis that could become an example for future excavations. The interdisciplinarity in the care and presentation and dissemination of our past remains is the main character in the conservation of matter and in the preservation of places’ memory.   The choice in the election of archaeological excavation as a monument and a document is a reflection on the pedagogical and regenerative potential that contemporary architectural intervention could have during the process of the discovery of the ancient.KeywordsArcheological excavation; musealization; protection; Agrigento; Aquileia      PrefaceThe reflection is a process of maturation, association and reasoning. [...] His greater capacity (is) to accept the data and to uncover the possibilities.\cite{espuelas2008vuoto}The reflection does not want to be a sickle but wants to be seed [1]. In an analogical way, the research presented here is not intended to be a peremptory and conclusive solution to a specific problem. It wants to be a prototype, in the deepest and widest sense in its meaning; the prototype not only as “first of its kind” practically built, but as a reasoning, a theoretical model, verified on case studies needed for the generalization but not sufficient in the generalization. Only through a consolidated theoretical awareness is possible to imagine also the “practical” aspect of any “object”. This theoretical awareness should not lose sight of the conceptual connections, the network of ties that make the tissue of knowledge complex and vital.Introduction“The collective memory and its scientific form, the history, are applied to two types of materials: the documents and monuments. In fact,  what survives is not the complexity of what has existed in the past, but a choice made by both forces working in the temporal evolution of the world and of the humanity, and by those who are delegated to the study of the past and the times past […] These memory materials can be presented under two main forms: monuments, heritage of the past, and documents, choice of the historian.” \cite{le1978voce}This sentence introduces the heading of document | monument, curated by Jaques Le Goff, in the Einaudi Encyclopedia, published between 1974 e 1984 in 14 volumes.      “Not a summa […] nor a digest of knowledge. Rather, it is, perhaps, not unrealistic to aim at a sort of critical identification of the crossroad of the various issues, believing these moments are able to form a coherent speech - not final - in development, animator of the current knowledge. […] An Encyclopedia that is not deliberately concerned [...] with all that is the notion of knowing, and, instead, focus its attention on the backbone and important elements of cultural discourse that has been organizing in the last half of the century […]” [2].  The purpose is therefore not to tell “the perfect stability of knowledge, intellectual certainty, the conviction that a peak has been reached”, but “of a knowledge that changes, in a crisis, as commonly said, of a culture that is sought, of a society that sees new values emerging.”\cite{Enciclopedia}It seems coherent, in analogy to this speech, to imagine the way in which the subject of the introduced research, the archaeological excavation, as one of the many declinations that this report contains and which can manifest itself. The first derivative, a reasoning that has as a substrate the historically changeable relationship Le Goff cleverly retraces [3]. Following this speech, continuously developing by its nature, but starting from the beginning, we will recognize already in the archaeological excavation, a place bearer of memory that is waiting to be told and shown, and also shared, not in its stability, but in its becoming. State of the artThe new above the ancientIt is the same etymology of the two terms to suggest, as if it were an instruction manual, the attitude to be adopted towards the past, the distant past, an archaeological one.  The Monument underlies a triptych of behaviors: ammonire (to admonish) - moneo, ricordare (to remember) - memini, mostrare (to show) - monstro. They are three different worlds that coexist and contribute to the statement of the message that the monument itself becomes bearer. The Document, instead, refers to insegnare, comunicare (to teach, to communicate) - docere.   Usually, this gradual process of riconoscimento, memoria e racconto (recognition, memory and narrative) of archaeological heritage occurs when the excavation is completed [4], when, in a territorial scope, the important archaeological evidence and the presence of historical, landscaping and environmental values are recognized. In that case we choose to define its borders and equipping the area as an open-air museum [5].   The "architectural structures", that the archaeological excavations return us could be protected, and the "artifacts", when they are left in their discovery context, in situ musealised [6].“The musealization is an overcoming of the traditional image of the museum […]. It is a bit the opposite of what usually happens, no longer the existing structures go to the museum, but the museum is going to the existing structures, particularly to the archaeological sites. […]Continuing to  worry about and take care of two things for which the museum worries and occupies: to conserve, but at the same time using the asset as a tool for the dissemination of culture”. [7] \cite{indrio1988siti}These words by Franco Minissi introduced the second day of the seminary "I siti archeologici. Un problema di musealizzazione all’aperto" , Roma 1988, one of those few and often isolated moments of confrontation on the theme of the future of the past [8]. Minissi had shaped and had translated for the first time in 1957 - the covering systems of the "architectural structures" and the "artifacts" of Villa del Casale in Piazza Armerina [9] - the principles sustained in 1964 by Carta di Venezia (Carta del Restauro). It was promoted, among others, by Cesare Brandi, then director of the Istituto Centrale per il Restauro [10].  Unfortunately, the figure of Minissi is always associated with the unhappy Sicilian season - the  Piazza Armerina covering structures, the fortificazioni di Gela protections, the cavea reconstruction of Greek Theatre di Eraclea Minoa.All these interventions, for a variety of reasons - from poor maintenance to lack of knowledge of the effects of new materials on the ancient - have had little luck.  Less well-known, but of great interest, are all the other projects Minissi deals with. Continuing to reflect on the themes of museography and museology, which are turn down in the archaeological discipline, Minissi got in line and explained those recurring and typical of archaeological sites interventions principles that we could call “technical”. They are a way to work and are confirmed, consistently, in his professional and didactic activity.The new above the ancient at first must be reversible "and this for at least four basic reasons:-    the possibility of restoration in the pre-operative condition;-    the clear recognition of the intervention and its dating;-    the ease of making changes; -    the possibility of dissociation of the pre-existence images from the additions. This task is achievable only through the possession of a wealth of technical and technological knowledge constantly updated, of course, associated with critical sensibility and awareness of who deals with this type of operation.”\cite{minissi1988conservazione} [11]From the site to the excavation: the Franco Minissi lesson in the contemporary musealizationThe Minissi lesson, first of all, a theoretical one and then a practical one, places itself in a strategic position with respect to the cultural panorama and the next debate. As has already been stated, despite being limited the autonomy in the literature of the subject at issue, if we believe, as we believe, the project as research, the experiences in the musealization and protection of archaeological sites, in recent years, have seen an overactive experimentation. In them we could recognize the principles of which Minissi is the forerunner.A first task of identifying and recognition of these interventions has allowed me the construction of a first gallery, an updated atlas of possible ways in the interpretation of the delicate relationship between architecture and archaeology.It has been chosen to synthesize this process, in this context, intentionally and consciously, shrinking the temporal distance between the root, Minissi’s experience, and the closest and most contemporary experiences, which are its extreme derivatives. This near-forced closeness becomes a metaphor for this acceleration.There are multiple interpretations related to different trends. One of them concerns the evoking in volumes starting from the position of architectural structures. This is the attitude of Peter Zumthor in Chur, João Louis Carrillho de Graça and João Gomes da Silva in Praca Nova, Dorothee Eyck e Florian Oswald in Eisenberg, a very close way to the experience of Piazza Armerina. A different approach is that of Moneo in Merida, of Arriola and Fiol in Saint Boi de Llobregat, of Tortelli - Frassoni in Brescia and Aquieia, of Paredes - Pedrosa in Pedrosa de la Vega, where the reading of the spaces and the layering of history is entrusted to the paths of different levels, which stand almost as a suggestion the layer of archeology from the contemporary visitor layer.Another central theme is the “points of view”. Also in these case, there are different translations. On the one hand is the planned path that controls the understanding of space (Pikionis in Athens); otherwise, it is the design of a device that explains the site (Marte.Marte in Brederis) or helps us in understanding from a different point of view. Some virtuous examples are, once again, the project by Franco Minissi (the structure for the Passo di Corvo 1985-86 or the project of the Prehistoric Museum in Cassano Ionico 1985), but also the project by Barbara Scher and Arnold Bodner in Aguntum a stable observation tower reminiscent of insights and experiences of Maria Reiche in reading and comprehension, so musealization, of the Nazca lines.The collection of examples gathered, it can not be said over and will continuously be read and interpreted, has led to the recognition of the common attitudes and define recurring principles that are the basis of building a program: the getting into,  the getting through, the covering, the knowing and understanding through the seeing. (Fig.1)